Table 1

Distribution of LV circumferential strain

nEcc (%)P value
Sex
 Female303−19.2 ± 2.4
 Male411−18.3 ± 2.4<0.0001
Age
 <50 years390−18.9 ± 2.4
 ≥50 years324−18.4 ± 2.40.0064
Treatment group
 Intensive371−18.8 ± 2.4
 Conventional343−18.6 ± 2.40.3183
Study cohort
 Primary353−18.8 ± 2.4
 Secondary361−18.6 ± 2.40.2351
Current smoker
 No631−18.8 ± 2.4
 Yes83−18.1 ± 2.60.0097
Alcohol
 No385−18.7 ± 2.5
 Yes329−18.7 ± 2.30.4766
BMI ≥30 kg/m2
 No488−18.9 ± 2.4
 Yes226−18.3 ± 2.40.0025
AER ≥300 μg/min or ESRD
 No679−18.7 ± 2.4
 Yes35−17.8 ± 2.20.0150
Sustained AER ≥30 μg/min or ESRD
 No565−18.8 ± 2.4
 Yes149−18.2 ± 2.50.0030
Any proliferative diabetic retinopathy*
 No596−18.8 ± 2.4
 Yes118−18.2 ± 2.50.0256
Hypertension
 No373−19.0 ± 2.3
 Yes341−18.4 ± 2.40.0004
Hypercholesterolemia
 No248−19.0 ± 2.4
 Yes466−18.5 ± 2.40.0030
Metabolic syndrome§
 No460−18.9 ± 2.4
 Yes226−18.1 ± 2.4<0.0001
Myocardial scar
 None682−18.7 ± 2.4
 Any32−17.7 ± 2.70.0294
 Ischemic16−18.4 ± 2.70.0205
 Nonischemic16−17.0 ± 2.4(df = 2)
  • Data are mean ± SD unless otherwise indicated. More-negative Ecc values indicate more myocardial circumferential deformation. AER, albumin excretion rate; ESRD, end-stage renal disease.

  • *During the DCCT/EDIC study.

  • †Defined as BP ≥140/90 mmHg or treatment with an antihypertensive medication.

  • ‡Defined as LDL ≥130 mg/dL or treatment with a lipid-lowering medication.

  • §Defined as at least two of the four components: systolic BP ≥130 mmHg or diastolic BP ≥85 mmHg or any antihypertensive agent, including ACE/angiotensin receptor blocker for all reasons, female waist circumference ≥88 cm or male waist circumference ≥102 cm, female HDL cholesterol <50 mg/dL or male HDL cholesterol <40 mg/dL, and triglycerides ≥150 mg/dL.