Table 2

Recent estimates of the association between major risk factors and diabetic retinopathy

Risk factorReferenceStrength of association, odds ratio (95% CI)
Duration of diabetesXu et al. (48)1.16 (1.10–1.22) per year increase
Kajiwara et al. (49)1.13 (1.09–1.17) per year increase
HbA1cXu et al. (48)1.73 (1.35–2.21) per 1% increase
Kajiwara et al. (49)1.21 (1.08–1.36) per 1% increase
Jin et al. (50)1.12 (1.01–1.24) per 1% increase
Blood pressureKajiwara et al. (49)1.02 (1.01–1.03) per mmHg increase in systolic blood pressure
Jin et al. (50)1.80 (1.14–2.86) if systolic blood pressure >140 mmHg and/or diastolic blood pressure >90 mmHg