Table 4

Recommended follow-up

IndicationReferral to ophthalmologistFollow-up Recommended intraocular treatment*
No diabetic retinopathyWithin 1 yearEvery 1–2 yearsNone
Mild NPDRWithin 1 yearEvery yearNone
Moderate NPDRWithin 3–6 monthsEvery 6–9 monthsNone
Severe NPDRImmediateEvery 3–6 monthsCan consider early PRP for patients with type 2 diabetes
PDRImmediateEvery 3 monthsPRP or intravitreous anti-VEGF therapy, especially if HRCs are present
No DMEWithin 1 yearEvery 1–2 yearsNone
Non-CIDMEWithin 3–6 monthsEvery 6 monthsNone, but observe carefully for progression to CIDME
CIDMEImmediateEvery 1–4 monthsAnti-VEGF as first-line therapy for most eyes. Consider macular laser as an adjunctive therapy in eyes with persistent CIDME despite anti-VEGF therapy. Intravitreous steroid treatment can be used as an alternative in selected cases.
  • *In addition to optimizing systemic control of blood glucose, cholesterol, and hypertension, as well as educating the patient about importance of routine follow-up regardless of whether visual symptoms are present or absent.