Adjusted for mean blood glucose^{*} | ||||
---|---|---|---|---|

Hazard ratio | 95% CL | Z value | P value^{†} | |

Retinopathy | ||||

Within-day | ||||

SD | 0.937 | 0.834, 1.054 | −1.08 | 0.28 |

MAGE | 0.938 | 0.837, 1.050 | −1.11 | 0.27 |

M-value | 0.804 | 0.582, 1.112 | −1.32 | 0.19 |

Longitudinal | ||||

Total blood glucose variance | 0.951 | 0.844, 1.072 | −0.83 | 0.41 |

Between-day variance | 0.920 | 0.839, 1.009 | −1.76 | 0.08 |

Within-day variance | 0.970 | 0.872, 1.080 | −0.55 | 0.59 |

Mean MAGE | 0.966 | 0.853, 1.095 | −0.54 | 0.60 |

Mean M-value | 0.972 | 0.792, 1.191 | −0.28 | 0.79 |

Microalbuminuria | ||||

Within-day | ||||

SD | 1.021 | 0.842, 1.238 | 0.21 | 0.84 |

MAGE | 1.01 | 0.834, 1.213 | 0.062 | 0.96 |

M-value | 0.899 | 0.517, 1.564 | −0.38 | 0.71 |

Longitudinal | ||||

Total blood glucose variance | 1.084 | 0.838, 1.401 | 0.61 | 0.54 |

Between-day variance | 1.132 | 0.999, 1.283 | 1.95 | 0.06 |

Within-day variance | 0.904 | 0.698, 1.172 | −0.76 | 0.45 |

Mean MAGE | 0.812 | 0.621, 1.062 | −1.52 | 0.13 |

Mean M-value | 2.142 | 1.505, 3.048 | 4.23 | <0.0001 |

Odds ratio | ||||
---|---|---|---|---|

Cardiovascular autonomic neuropathy | ||||

Within-day | ||||

SD | 1.098 | 0.952, 1.268 | 1.29 | 0.20 |

MAGE | 1.138 | 0.999, 1.298 | 1.93 | 0.06 |

M-value | 1.336 | 0.953, 1.874 | 1.68 | 0.10 |

Longitudinal | ||||

Total blood glucose variance | 1.357 | 1.114, 1.655 | 3.03 | 0.0025 |

Between-day variance | 1.221 | 1.052, 1.416 | 2.63 | 0.0087 |

Within-day variance | 1.132 | 0.946, 1.355 | 1.35 | 0.18 |

Mean MAGE | 1.155 | 0.925, 1.444 | 1.27 | 0.21 |

Mean M-value | 1.011 | 0.690, 1.483 | 0.06 | 0.96 |

↵*Models for the association of within-day measures of variation with the risk of progression of microvascular complications are also adjusted for the within-day mean blood glucose; models for longitudinal measures of variation are adjusted for the longitudinal mean level of blood glucose. The hazard ratio is from a Cox proportional hazards model of the incidence of retinopathy and nephropathy progression over time, and the odds ratio is from a general estimating equation logistic regression model of prevalence of CAN at 2, 4, 6, and 8 years of follow-up.

The association of all measures with progression of complications without adjustment for the mean blood glucose is shown in the Supplementary Data. CL, confidence limits.

↵†After applying the Holm procedure to correct for the total of 24 tests, only the effect of the mean M-value on risk of microalbuminuria (

*Z*= 4.23) meets the criteria for significance at the 0.05 level.