Table 1

Demographic and clinical characteristics of T1D case subjects and control subjects in the study population

Patient characteristicsControl (n = 74)T1D (n = 176)P value*
Age (years)15.4 (2.2)15.2 (2.2)0.64
Duration of diabetes (years)8.6 (2.9)
Sex, female, n (%)42 (57)99 (56)0.92
Race, %0.03
 Non-Hispanic white6883
 African American113
 Hispanic116
 Other109
Tanner stage, %¥0.77
 154
 21310
 31612
 42425
 54249
BMI (kg/m2)21.8 (4.2)22.4 (3.4)0.03
BMI z score0.27 (1.0)0.55 (0.77)0.04
HbA1c (%, mmol/mol)5.3 (0.3), 34 (2.9)9.0 (1.6), 75 (17.5)<0.001
Systolic BP (mmHg)109 (8)113 (9)<0.001
Diastolic BP (mmHg)64 (6)69 (6)<0.001
Total cholesterol (mg/dL)148 (28)159 (35)0.47
LDL cholesterol (mg/dL)82 (23)90 (28)0.39
HDL cholesterol (mg/dL)49 (9)52 (11)0.29
Triglycerides (mg/dL)83 (42)87 (50)0.33
ApoB (mg/dL)69 (19)77 (23)0.003
PCSK9 (ng/mL)203 (77)279 (104)0.0001
  • Values are mean (SD), unless otherwise indicated. BP, blood pressure.

  • * Comparisons between groups determined using t tests if variables were normally distributed or normality was achieved with log transformation. Boldface type indicates statistical significance where P < 0.05.

  • ¥ Tanner stage refers to pubic hair development by provider report.