Table 3

Association of cord blood metabolites with cord C-peptide (μg/L)

MetaboliteAfro-CaribbeanNorthern EuropeanMexican AmericanThaiMeta-analysis
β (SE)Pβ (SE)Pβ (SE)Pβ (SE)Pβ (SE)PQQ test PI2
Leucine/isoleucine−0.0009 (0.0011)4.05e-01−0.0044 (0.0011)1.28e-04−0.0017 (0.0008)3.29e-02−0.0026 (0.0010)7.21e-03−0.0023 (0.0007)8.78e-045.921.15e-0150.71
AC C50.1383 (0.0551)1.25e-020.0549 (0.0572)3.37e-010.0643 (0.0516)2.14e-010.0596 (0.0477)2.12e-010.0777 (0.0263)3.09e-031.586.64e-010.00
AC C30.1427 (0.0772)6.51e-020.1134 (0.0773)1.43e-010.0149 (0.0811)8.54e-010.0300 (0.0742)6.87e-010.0757 (0.0387)5.02e-021.945.86e-010.00
Valine−0.0002 (0.0009)7.84e-01−0.0001 (0.0010)8.96e-01−0.0015 (0.0006)1.65e-02−0.0003 (0.0007)6.42e-01−0.0007 (0.0004)7.70e-022.564.65e-017.47
AC C4/Ci40.1134 (0.0876)1.96e-010.0492 (0.0777)5.27e-010.0045 (0.0844)9.58e-01−0.0245 (0.0796)7.58e-010.0331 (0.0410)4.19e-011.526.77e-010.00
Phenylalanine0.0037 (0.0028)1.83e-01−0.0022 (0.0025)3.91e-01−0.0030 (0.0022)1.69e-01−0.0005 (0.0025)8.50e-01−0.0008 (0.0014)5.81e-013.982.64e-0122.32
  • Values are adjusted for cord glucose. All amino acids and acylcarnitines are measured in µmol/L.