Table 1

Significant independent predictors of six metabolic outcomes at 3 years postpartum

Outcome at 3 years*Significant predictorsβtP
A. ISSI-2ISSI-2 at 1 year0.5526698.36<0.0001
BMI at 1 year−16.72522−3.320.001
B. IGI/HOMA-IRIGI/HOMA-IR at 1 year0.0077352.880.004
BMI at 1 year−0.028240−1.980.049
C. Matsuda indexMatsuda index at 1 year0.0229484.85<0.0001
BMI at 1 year−0.048227−7.28<0.0001
Change in BMI from 1 to 3 years−0.100288−5.79<0.0001
Asian ethnicity−0.289391−3.370.0009
Nonwhite non-Asian ethnicity−0.325275−4.12<0.0001
Family history of diabetes−0.134457−2.560.01
Adiponectin at 1 year0.0335994.09<0.0001
PAI-1 at 1 year−0.000117−2.590.01
Change in PAI-1 from 1 to 3 years−0.000138−2.870.005
D. HOMA-IRHOMA-IR at 1 year0.2094655.41<0.0001
BMI at 1 year0.0460186.22<0.0001
Change in BMI from 1 to 3 years0.0950505.15<0.0001
Nonwhite non-Asian ethnicity0.1928132.300.02
Family history of diabetes0.1157512.070.04
Adiponectin at 1 year−0.034484−4.01<0.0001
PAI-1 at 1 year0.0001002.080.04
Change in PAI-1 from 1 to 3 years0.0001122.200.03
CRP at 1 year−0.024985−2.560.01
Change in CRP from 1 to 3 years−0.019536−2.520.01
E. Fasting glucoseFasting glucose at 1 year0.61720810.99<0.0001
BMI at 1 year0.0290074.43<0.0001
Change in BMI from 1 to 3 years0.0708004.1<0.0001
CRP at 1 year−0.025304−2.770.006
Change in CRP from 1 to 3 years−0.020363−2.790.006
F. 2-h glucose2-h glucose at 1 year0.64089411.45<0.0001
BMI at 1 year0.0621882.610.01
Change in BMI from 1 to 3 years0.1522482.430.02
  • * Each of these six multiple linear regression models included the covariates age, ethnicity, family history of diabetes, duration of breastfeeding, BMI at 1 year, change in BMI from 1 to 3 years, the measure of the respective outcome variable at 1 year, and both the 1-year measure and change from 1 to 3 years for all of the following: adiponectin, chemerin, RBP-4, CRP, and PAI-1. IGI, insulinogenic index; ISSI-2, Insulin Secretion-Sensitivity Index-2.