Table 1

Demography, clinical characteristics, and body composition at baseline and after 20 weeks (posttraining) in adolescents with type 1 diabetes who trained (T1D Tx), with type 1 diabetes who did not train (T1D Con), and without diabetes who trained (ND Tx)

BaselinePosttraining
T1D ConT1D TxND TxT1D ConT1D TxND Tx
N (% female)15 (53)38 (47)22 (55)13 (46)37 (49)22 (55)
Age (years)15.5 ± 0.9*15.6 ± 1.3*16.7 ± 1.5
Diabetes duration (years)7.5 ± 4.05.4 ± 3.4
HbA1c (%)8.57 (7.84–9.31)****8.80 (8.36–9.25)****5.15 (4.43–5.88)8.67 (8.06–9.28)****8.50 (8.13–8.86)****5.14 (4.45–5.83)
HbA1c (mmol/mol)70 (62–78)73 (68–78)33 (25–41)71 (65–78)69 (65–73)33 (25–40)
Insulin (units/day)73.8 (60.4–87.3)64.8 (57.5–72.2)80.3 (64.5–96.1)59.1 (50.3–67.9),#
Weight (kg)69.2 (63.3–75.1)69.8 (66.1–73.6)64.6 (59.5–69.7)71.0 (65.0–77.0)#70.2 (66.6–73.8)#65.7 (60.9–70.5)
BMI (kg/m2)24.6 (22.8–26.4)23.5 (22.4–24.7)23.0 (21.4–24.5)25.0 (23.1–26.9)23.5 (22.4–24.7)23.1 (21.5–24.6)
Bone mineral density (g/cm2)1.184 (1.140–1.229)1.141 (1.113–1.169)1.136 (1.110–1.174)1.181 (1.138–1.122)1.146 (1.120–1.172)####1.154 (1.120–1.189)####
Percent fat-free mass74.2 (70.0–78.3)74.3 (71.7–76.9)73.1 (69.5–76.6)72.6 (68.0–77.1)75.3 (72.6–78.1)####73.9 (70.3–77.6)##
Percent total body fat27.3 (23.0–31.6)26.8 (24.0–29.5)27.9 (24.2–31.6)28.6 (24.0–33.2)#25.7 (22.9–28.5)##26.8 (23.0–30.5)##
Android fat to gynoid fat ratio0.884 (0.791–0.976)0.855 (0.797–0.913)0.827 (0.748–0.906)0.897 (0.789–1.00)0.841 (0.776–0.905)0.844 (0.758–0.931)
  • Age and diabetes duration data are means ± SD; other data are means and 95% CIs adjusted for age and sex.

  • P < 0.05 for comparisons between the two groups with diabetes.

  • *P < 0.05;

  • ****P < 0.0001 for comparisons with ND Tx.

  • #P < 0.05;

  • ##P < 0.01;

  • ####P < 0.0001 for a change from baseline within group.