Table 2

Results from VO2peak tests carried out at baseline and after 20 weeks (posttraining) in adolescents with type 1 diabetes who trained (T1D Tx), with type 1 diabetes who did not train (T1D Con), and without diabetes who trained (ND Tx)

TimeBaselinePosttraining
T1D ConT1D TxND TxT1D ConT1D TxND Tx
N (% female)15 (53)38 (47)22 (5)13 (46)37 (49)22 (55)
Heart rate (bpm)At rest76.5 (70.1–82.9)*74.5 (70.5–78.5)*67.1 (61.7–72.6)78.7 (72.1–85.4)**72.1 (68.1–76.1)65.9 (60.6–71.3)
Maximal exercise182.6 (177.4–187.7)188.6 (185.4–191.8)185.7 (181.3–190.1)181.7 (176.6–186.8)187.8 (184.7–190.8)187.4 (183.3–191.5)
Systolic BP (mmHg)At rest110.3 (106.3–114.3)110.2 (107.7–112.7)106.3 (102.9–109.8)109.5 (105.4–113.7)110.2 (107.7–112.7)106.1 (102.7–109.4)
Maximal exercise169.1 (159.7–178.5)170.2 (164.3–176.1)160.3 (152.3–168.3)173.6 (164.9–182.3)**171.0 (165.7–176.2)*158.9 (151.9–165.9)
Diastolic BP (mmHg)At rest63.3 (59.6–67.0)63.5 (61.2–65.9)61.2 (58.0–64.4)63.3 (59.5–67.1)63.0 (60.7–65.3)60.2 (57.1–63.2)
Maximal exercise67.5 (63.3–71.7)67.0 (64.4–69.7)67.5 (63.9–71.1)70.6 (66.0–75.3)*64.9 (62.1–67.7)64.7 (60.9–68.4)
Mean arterial pressure (mmHg)At rest79.0 (75.5–82.4)79.1 (76.9–81.2)76.2 (73.2–79.2)78.7 (75.2–82.3)78.7 (76.6–80.9)75.5 (72.6–78.3)
Maximal exercise101.4 (97.0–105.8)101.4 (98.6–104.2)98.5 (94.7–102.2)105.0 (100.6–109.3)**,#100.3 (97.6–102.9)96.1 (92.6–99.6)
O2 pulseMaximal exercise12.3 (11.0–13.6)12.3 (11.5–13.2)12.3 (11.2–13.4)12.5 (11.0–14.0)14.0 (13.1–14.9)####13.8 (12.6–15.0)####
Respiratory exchange ratioMaximal exercise1.21 (1.18–1.23)1.20 (1.19–1.22)1.24 (1.22–1.26)1.19 (1.15–1.23)*1.21 (1.19–1.23)1.25 (1.22–1.27)
VO2peak (L/min)Maximal exercise2.19 (2.00–2.38)*2.24 (2.12–2.36)*2.47 (2.30–2.63)2.26 (2.07–2.46)***2.51 (2.39–2.64)*,,####2.79 (2.63–2.96)####
VO2peak (mL/kg FFM/min)Maximal exercise43.8 (40.4–47.1)*45.0 (42.9–47.1)*48.5 (45.7–51.4)44.2 (40.5–47.8)***49.9 (47.7–52.1)*,††,####53.6 (50.6–56.5)####
Workload (watts)Maximal exercise190.7 (166.6–214.9)197.9 (182.7–213.1)192.1 (171.4–212.8)187.7 (161.5–214.0)214.2 (198.4–230.1)####218.5 (197.4–239.6)####
  • Data are adjusted means and 95% CIs from multivariate models. BP, blood pressure; FFM, fat-free mass.

  • *P < 0.05;

  • **P < 0.01;

  • ***P < 0.001 for comparisons with ND Tx.

  • P < 0.05;

  • ††P < 0.01 for comparisons between the two groups with diabetes.

  • #P < 0.05;

  • ###P < 0.001;

  • ####P < 0.0001 for a change from baseline within group.