Table 1

Results for RM-SAP and CLC groups

Mean ± SDQuartilesStatistical tests
RM-SAPCLCRM-SAPCLCEffect of APAP and ski level
Quality of glucose control
 Percent between 70 and 180 mg/dLOverall64.7 ± 13.371.3 ± 17.652–77.461.4–83.9P = 0.008P = 0.740
Daytime (7:00 a.m. to 11:00 p.m.)62.7 ± 16.567.7 ± 17.549.1–7952.6–84.2P = 0.008P = 0.649
Overnight (11:00 p.m. to 7:00 a.m.)68.8 ± 24.179.3 ± 29.847.1–99.269.8–100P = 0.156P = 0.932
Skiing (9:30 a.m. to noon and 1:00 p.m. to 4:00 p.m.)62.8 ± 31.463.2 ± 31.143.6–88.345.5–86.4P = 0.604P = 0.688
 Percent between 70 and 140 mg/dLOverall45.4 ± 19.246.7 ± 20.926.6–61.434.9–59.9P = 0.086P = 0.239
Daytime (7:00 a.m. to 11:00 p.m.)41.9 ± 20.642.7 ± 18.524.2–6329–57.8P = 0.083P = 0.502
Overnight (11:00 p.m. to 7:00 a.m.)52.3 ± 29.255.7 ± 38.514.6–91.139.6–82.3P = 0.332P = 0.226
Skiing (9:30 a.m. to noon and 1:00 p.m. to 4:00 p.m.)43.5 ± 29.437 ± 22.616.3–69.715.5–59.1P = 0.685P = 0.952
 Average glycemia (mg/dL)Overall155.9 ± 26.1152.6 ± 24.3130.7–177.1132.5–165.3P = 0.133P = 0.702
Daytime (7:00 a.m. to 11:00 p.m.)161 ± 29.9157.5 ± 20.1131.6–185.7138.2–173.7P = 0.075P = 0.678
Overnight (11:00 p.m. to 7:00 a.m.)145.5 ± 38.2142.2 ± 47.8103.3–178.3113.4–157.3P = 0.635P = 0.594
Skiing (9:30 a.m. to noon and 1:00 p.m. to 4:00 p.m.)165 ± 48.2165.1 ± 35.9123.2–200.6136.8–185.9P = 0.774P = 0.768
 Total insulin use (units/kg)Overall0.89 ± 0.230.77 ± 0.320.7–1.060.51–1P = 0.0001P = 0.001
Daytime (7:00 a.m. to 11:00 p.m.)0.76 ± 0.210.6 ± 0.270.57–0.940.42–0.78P = 0.0001P = 0.014
Overnight (11:00 p.m. to 7:00 a.m.)0.13 ± 0.050.14 ± 0.10.11–0.150.08–0.18P = 0.72P = 0.158
Skiing (9:30 a.m. to noon and 1:00 p.m. to 4:00 p.m.)0.18 ± 0.120.14 ± 0.110.11–0.220.07–0.18P = 0.013P = 0.729
Safety outcomes
 Percent <70 mg/dLOverall3.2 ± 3.11.8 ± 1.50.6–5.20–2.9P = 0.0001P = 0.002
Daytime (7:00 a.m. to 11:00 p.m.)3.6 ± 3.21.6 ± 1.90–4.70–2.3P = 0.0001P = 0.164
Overnight (11:00 p.m. to 7:00 a.m.)2.5 ± 6.52.2 ± 2.30–4.20–1P = 0.489P = 0.001
Skiing (9:30 a.m. to noon and 1:00 p.m. to 4:00 p.m.)2.3 ± 6.41.4 ± 1.60–1.50–0P = 0.042P = 0.273
 Number of events <70 mg/dLOverall0.7 ± 10.8 ± 0.60–10–1P = 0.373P = 0.63
Daytime (7:00 a.m. to 11:00 p.m.)0.6 ± 0.90.7 ± 0.60–10–1P = 0.391P = 0.716
Overnight (11:00 p.m. to 7:00 a.m.)0.1 ± 0.40.1 ± 0.30–00–0P = 0.827P = 0.147
Skiing (9:30 a.m. to noon and 1:00 p.m. to 4:00 p.m.)0.3 ± 0.70.3 ± 0.40–10–0.3P = 0.885P = 0.773
 Number of hypoglycemia treatmentsOverall3.5 ± 3.73.4 ± 1.82–51–5P = 0.159P = 0.007
Daytime (7:00 a.m. to 11:00 p.m.)2.7 ± 2.82.6 ± 0.91–31–3P = 0.133P = 0.006
Overnight (11:00 p.m. to 7:00 a.m.)0.7 ± 1.30.7 ± 1.40–10–1P = 0.937P = 0.446
Skiing (9:30 a.m. to noon and 1:00 p.m. to 4:00 p.m.)1.3 ± 1.51.1 ± 0.70–20–2P = 0.189P = 0.078
 Amount of CHO treatments (g)Overall49.7 ± 41.950.6 ± 27.320.8–68.316–69.8P = 0.319P = 0.129
Daytime (7:00 a.m. to 11:00 p.m.)39.9 ± 34.338.6 ± 18.315.8–5714.5–52.5P = 0.749P = 0.954
Overnight (11:00 p.m. to 7:00 a.m.)9.9 ± 14.812 ± 21.80–200–9P = 0.113P = 0.001
Skiing (9:30 a.m. to noon and 1:00 p.m. to 4:00 p.m.)17.4 ± 18.614 ± 10.30–30.80–24.3P = 0.428P = 0.050
 Percent >250 mg/dLOverall0.1 ± 0.10.1 ± 0.10–0.10–0.1P = 0.048P = 0.057
Daytime (7:00 a.m. to 11:00 p.m.)0.1 ± 0.10.1 ± 0.10–0.20–0.1P = 0.003P = 0.141
Overnight (11:00 p.m. to 7:00 a.m.)0 ± 0.10.1 ± 0.10–00–0P = 0.473P = 0.117
Skiing (9:30 a.m. to noon and 1:00 p.m. to 4:00 p.m.)0.1 ± 0.20.1 ± 0.20–0.20–0.1P = 0.125P = 0.680
  • Mean, SD, and quartiles are reported for both treatments, and P values for the main effect (RM-SAP vs. CLC) and for interaction between AP and ski levels are reported if <0.1. Main effect P values <0.05 show a clear impact of the CLC system, and significant interactions indicate that the impact of CLC is changed by the subject ski level. CHO, carbohydrate. Significance levels <0.05 are presented in bold font.