Table 1

Sources and magnitudes of RRs for the effects of diabetes

Risk factorsTMRED ± SDRR of diabetes
SourcesExposure metric, unitsAge (years/ sex*)RR (95% CI)
Lifestyle and metabolic risk factors
 High BMI21 ± 1 kg/m2Hartemink N et al., Am J Epidemiol, 2006BMI per kg/m2 increase1.18 (1.16–1.20)
 Physical inactivity133 ± 13 MET h/weekSmith A et al., Diabetologia, 2016Total activity per 10 MET h/week decrease1.05 (1.03–1.08)
 High blood pressure115 ± 6 mmHgEmdin C et al., J Am Coll Cardiol, 2015SBP per 20 mmHg increase20–502.00 (1.96–2.04)
51–701.49 (1.47–1.51)
71–901.14 (1.11–1.17)
 SmokingCurrent smokingPan A et al., Lancet Diabetes Endocrinol, 2015Yes vs. noM1.42 (1.34–1.50)
F1.33 (1.26–1.41)
Moderate dietary factors
 Diet high in SSBsNo dietary intake of SSBsImamura F et al., BMJ, 2015per 250 g/day more1.13 (1.06–1.21)
 Diet high in red meat100 ± 10 g/weekPan A et al., Am J Clin Nutr, 2011per 100 g/day more1.19 (1.04–1.37)
 Diet high in processed meatNo dietary intake of processed meatPan A et al., Am J Clin Nutr, 2011per 100 g/day more1.51 (1.25–1.83)
 Diet high in refined grain200 ± 20 g/day**Hu EA et al., BMJ, 2012per 63.2 g/day more§1.11 (1.08–1.14)
Adequate dietary factors
 Diet low in whole grain125 ± 12.5 g/day**Aune D et al., Eur J Epidemiol, 201390 g/day less1.47 (1.25–1.72)
 Diet low in low-fat dairy products300 ± 30 g/day**Tong X et al., Eur J Clin Nutr, 2011245 g/day less1.11 (1.05–1.18)
 Diet low in vegetables400 ± 40 g/dayWang P et al., J Diabetes Investig, 2016250 g/day less1.10 (0.99–1.22)
 Diet low in fruit300 ± 30 g/dayWang P et al., J Diabetes Investig, 2016100 g/day1.028 (1.01–1.04)
 Diet low in nuts114 ± 14 g/weekAfshin A et al., Am J Clin Nutr, 201416.2 g/day1.15 (1.07–1.23)
 Diet low in fish and seafood40 ± 4 g/day**Wu J et al. (Asia), Br J Nutr, 2012per 100 g/day less1.12 (1.02–1.23)
  • F, female; M, male.

  • *For all age groups and both males and females if not specifically indicated.

  • **2016 Chinese Dietary Guidelines for grain 250–400 g/day; combined with 2015 American Dietary Guidelines regarding at least half of grain intake is whole grain, so the TMRED level of whole grain is set up as at least 250/2 = 125 g/day and TMRED of refined grain is at most of 400/2 = 200 g/day.

  • 2016 Chinese Dietary Guidelines: 40–75 g/day for fish and seafood and dairy products of 300 g/day, we set up TMRED of fish and seafood of at least 40 g/day and low-fat dairy of 300 g/day.

  • §Per 158 g/day cooked rice (dry weight = 158/2.5 = 63.2).

  • ‡The full reference list for this table is listed in the Supplementary Data online.