Table 2.1

Staging of type 1 diabetes (4,5)

Stage 1Stage 2Stage 3
Characteristics• Autoimmunity• Autoimmunity• New-onset hyperglycemia
• Normoglycemia• Dysglycemia• Symptomatic
• Presymptomatic• Presymptomatic
Diagnostic criteria• Multiple autoantibodies• Multiple autoantibodies• Clinical symptoms
• No IGT or IFG• Dysglycemia: IFG and/or IGT• Diabetes by standard criteria
• FPG 100–125 mg/dL (5.6–6.9 mmol/L)
• 2-h PG 140–199 mg/dL (7.8–11.0 mmol/L)
• A1C 5.7–6.4% (39–47 mmol/mol) or ≥10% increase in A1C