Table 2

Unadjusted and adjusted differences in mean annual change in eGFR among those with diagnosed diabetes who attended visits 1 and 2 by subgroups of interest (n = 838)

SubgroupnUnadjusted difference (95% CI) from reference, mL/min/1.73 m2P value for differenceAdjusted difference (95% CI) from reference, mL/min/1.73 m2*P value for difference
Race and APOL1 (visit 1)
 White4950 (REF)0 (REF)
 Black, APOL1 low risk290−1.3 (−1.7 to −0.9)<0.001−0.7 (−1.2 to −0.3)0.001
 Black, APOL1 high risk53−1.7 (−2.5 to −1.0)<0.001−1.3 (−2.1 to −0.6)0.001
Systolic blood pressure (visit 1)
 <140 mmHg6430 (REF)0 (REF)
 ≥140 mmHg195−1.3 (−1.7 to −0.8)<0.001−1.0 (−1.4 to −0.5)<0.001
Smoking status (visit 1)§
 Never smoker4000 (REF)0 (REF)
 Former smoker2580.1 (−0.4 to 0.5)0.808−0.2 (−0.7 to 0.2)0.271
 Current smoker180−0.3 (−0.8 to 0.2)0.224−0.6 (−1.1 to −0.1)0.018
Prevalent coronary heart disease (visit 1)
 No prevalent coronary heart disease7430 (REF)0 (REF)
 Prevalent coronary heart disease95−0.6 (−1.3 to 0.0)0.068−0.6 (−1.2 to 0.1)0.080
Diabetes medication use (visit 1)
 No medication use2790 (REF)0 (REF)
 Oral medication use only319−0.7 (−1.1 to −0.3)0.002−0.3 (−0.7 to 0.2)0.270
 Any insulin use240−1.8 (−2.2 to −1.3)<0.001−1.1 (−1.6 to −0.6)<0.001
HbA1c (visit 2)#
 <7% (<53 mmol/mol)2500 (REF)0 (REF)
 ≥7 and <9% (≥53 and <75 mmol/mol)270−0.6 (−1.0 to −0.1)0.011−0.1 (−0.6 to 0.4)0.623
 ≥9% (≥75 mmol/mol)318−1.5 (−1.9 to −1.0)<0.001−0.7 (−1.2 to −0.2)0.004
1,5-Anhydroglucitol (visit 2)**
 ≥10 μg/mL2380 (REF)0 (REF)
 <10 μg/mL600−0.9 (−1.3 to −0.5)<0.0010.1 (−0.4 to 0.6)0.717
  • REF, reference.

  • *Adjusted for the following characteristics at baseline and their interactions with time, continuous variables centered at their means: age (reference: 56.09 years), sex (reference: male; and female), race–center (reference: Forsyth County, NC–white; and Forsyth County, NC–black, Jackson, MS–black, Minneapolis, MN–white, and Washington County, MD–white), systolic blood pressure (reference: 128.04 mmHg), hypertension medication use (reference: no; and yes), BMI (reference: 30.87 kg/m2), HDL (reference: 45.08 mg/dL), prevalent coronary heart disease (reference: no; and yes), smoking status (reference: never; and former and current), annual family income (reference: <$25,000; and ≥$25,000), educational status (reference: high school; and less than high school, vocational school, college, and graduate/professional school), diabetes medication use (reference: no medication use; and oral medication use only and any insulin use), and HbA1c (reference: 8.49% [69 mmol/mol]).

  • †Adjusted for all covariates with the exception of race–center.

  • ‡Adjusted for all covariates with the exception of systolic blood pressure.

  • §Adjusted for all covariates with the exception of smoking status.

  • ‖Adjusted for all covariates with the exception of prevalent coronary heart disease.

  • ¶Adjusted for all covariates with the exception of diabetes medication use.

  • #Adjusted for all covariates with the exception of HbA1c.

  • **Adjusted difference from REF when 1,5-anhydroglucitol is adjusted for all covariates except HbA1c: −0.4 mL/min/1.73 m2 (95% CI −0.8 to 0.0); P = 0.060.