Table 1

Baseline characteristics of the study population

Low-ACR groupHigh-ACR groupP
n396150
Sex, male, n (%)211 (53.3)77 (51.3)0.95
Age (years)14.3 (1.6)14.1 (1.6)0.17
Age at diagnosis (years)6.9 (3.6)8.2 (3.1)0.001
Duration of diabetes (years)7.3 (3.4)5.9 (3.1)<0.001
Height (cm)163.5 (10.6)162.1 (10.1)0.17
Weight (kg)59.0 (13.9)57.1 (12.9)0.15
Waist circumference (cm)72.5 (16.0)73.6 (9.0)0.41
BMI (kg/m2)21.9 (3.8)21.6 (3.6)0.38
Systolic blood pressure (mmHg)115.6 (11.3)116.4 (13.3)0.52
Diastolic blood pressure (mmHg)67.1 (7.7)65.6 (7.8)0.05
HbA1c (%)8.4 (1.3)8.5 (1.3)0.72
HbA1c (mmol/mol)68.8 (14.2)69.3 (14.6)0.72
Total cholesterol (mmol/L)4.36 (0.84)4.28 (0.90)0.38
HDL cholesterol (mmol/L)1.57 (0.42)1.55 (0.36)0.71
LDL cholesterol (mmol/L)2.31 (0.66)2.28 (0.66)0.62
Triglycerides (mmol/L)0.83 (0.64–1.19)0.88 (0.62–1.20)0.72
hs-CRP (mg/L)0.49 (0.19–1.14)0.59 (0.19–1.20)0.21
ADMA (nmol/L)471.2 (74.7)483.7 (93.2)0.16
ACR (mg/mmol)0.63 (0.53–0.74)1.23 (0.99–1.83)<0.001
Cystatin C (mg/L)0.86 (0.13)0.84 (0.13)0.22
Creatinine (µmol/L)55.1 (11.1)52.0 (10.0)0.009
eGFR (Schwartz) (mL/min/1.73 m2)128.5 (21.2)135.2 (24.6)0.007
eGFR (Zappitelli) (mL/min/1.73 m2)104.9 (16.2)109.2 (17.5)0.02
cIMT (mm)0.440 (0.041)0.444 (0.051)0.38
  • Data are mean (SD) or median (interquartile range) unless otherwise specified.