Table 2

Characteristics of study participants by quartiles of TIR

VariablesTIR quartilesP value for trend
Q1 (≤51%) (n = 812)Q2 (51–71%) (n = 855)Q3 (71–86%) (n = 791)Q4 (>86%) (n = 804)
Male sex49.344.241.743.60.016
Age (years)61.2 ± 12.861.6 ± 11.760.1 ± 11.658.6 ± 11.70.929
Diabetes duration (years)9.4 ± 7.18.7 ± 7.27.8 ± 6.36.6 ± 6.10.020
SBP (mmHg)132.5 ± 18.3132.5 ± 17.7131.8 ± 16.9131.1 ± 17.00.386
DBP (mmHg)79.9 ± 10.179.8 ± 9.879.9 ± 8.980.1 ± 9.40.956
BMI (kg/m2)25.0 ± 3.424.6 ± 3.425.2 ± 3.525.4 ± 3.4<0.001
Total cholesterol (mmol/L)4.9 ± 1.34.7 ± 1.24.7 ± 1.04.6 ± 1.0<0.001
TG (mmol/L)2.1 ± 2.01.8 ± 1.91.9 ± 1.71.9 ± 1.5<0.001
HDL-C (mmol/L)1.1 ± 0.31.2 ± 0.41.1 ± 0.31.1 ± 0.30.005
LDL-C (mmol/L)3.2 ± 1.03.2 ± 1.13.1 ± 0.93.1 ± 0.90.137
HbA1c (%)10.3 ± 1.99.4 ± 2.08.5 ± 2.07.4 ± 1.7<0.001
HbA1c (mmol/mol)89.0 ± 20.879.0 ± 21.969.0 ± 21.957.0 ± 18.6
Fasting C-peptide (ng/mL)1.9 ± 1.71.7 ± 1.12.0 ± 1.22.2 ± 1.00.041
SD (mmol/L)2.9 ± 0.92.7 ± 0.72.2 ± 0.51.4 ± 0.4<0.001
CV (%)25.3 ± 8.630.0 ± 8.727.1 ± 7.019.7 ± 5.9<0.001
MAGE (mmol/L)7.0 ± 2.67.1 ± 2.45.6 ± 1.73.6 ± 1.40.172
Current smoker21.226.224.527.60.012
Use antidiabetes agents
 Oral antidiabetes drugs50.957.270.379.2<0.001
 Insulin87.081.462.340.5<0.001
Use antihypertensive agents
 RAAS inhibitors44.241.342.843.10.830
 Calcium-channel blockers19.716.220.619.20.608
 β-Blockers9.89.07.68.50.237
 Diuretics3.93.83.12.20.044
Use lipid-lowering agents
 Statins24.824.323.125.70.833
 Fibrates11.08.510.010.70.885
  • Data are mean ± SD or percentage unless otherwise indicated. DBP, diastolic blood pressure; RAAS, renin-angiotensin-aldosterone system; SBP, systolic blood pressure.