Table 3

Age-, sex-, and race/ethnicity-adjusted trends and disparity in mortality (per 1,000 person-years) among adults ≥20 years of age, NHIS mortality follow-up 1988–2015

Adults with diabetesAdults without diabetes
Average annual mortalityHazard ratio10-Year absolute change10-Year percentage changeAverage annual mortalityHazard ratio10-Year absolute change10-Year percent change
Major CVD
 Age-group, years
  20–542.7 (2.2, 3.2)*1.0 (Reference)−0.3 (−0.9, 0.4)−1.1 (−3.6, 1.4)0.4 (0.4, 0.5)1.0 (Reference)0.0 (−0.0, 0.0)0.0 (−1.1, 1.1)
  55–647.9 (6.6, 9.1)2.9 (2.3, 3.7)−2.6 (−4.3, −0.8)−3.6 (−5.6, −1.7)1.9 (1.7, 2.1)4.5 (4.0, 5.1)−0.6 (−0.8, −0.4)−3.6 (−4.7, −2.5)
  65 or older25.8 (24.3, 27.3)9.5 (7.8, 11.8)−7.9 (−9.9, −5.8)−3.4 (−4.1, −2.7)14.1 (13.7, 14.4)33.4 (30.9, 36.2)−3.3 (−3.9, −2.7)−2.6 (−3.0, −2.3)
  P value<0.001<0.0010.210<0.001<0.001<0.001
 Sex
  Men10.5 (9.7, 11.3)1.6 (1.4, 1.7)−4.6 (−5.8, −3.3)−4.5 (−5.4, −3.5)5.0 (4.8, 5.2)1.6 (1.5, 1.7)−1.6 (−1.9, −1.4)−3.3 (−3.8, −2.9)
  Women6.7 (6.2, 7.1)1.0 (Reference)−2.0 (−2.7, −1.3)−3.1 (−3.9, −2.2)3.1 (3.0, 3.2)1.0 (Reference)−0.8 (−1.0, −0.7)−2.7 (−3.2, −2.3)
  P value<0.001<0.0010.015<0.001<0.0010.075
 Race/ethnicity
  Non-Hispanic white8.4 (7.9, 8.9)1.0 (Reference)−3.1 (−3.9, −2.4)−3.8 (−4.6, −3.1)3.8 (3.7, 4.0)1.0 (Reference)−1.2 (−1.3, −1.0)−3.2 (−3.5, −2.8)
  Non-Hispanic black8.4 (7.1, 9.7)1.0 (0.8, 1.2)−3.1 (−5.1, −1.1)−3.8 (−5.8, −1.8)5.2 (4.9, 5.5)1.4 (1.3, 1.4)−1.5 (−1.9, −1.1)−2.9 (−3.7, −2.1)
  Other6.9 (5.7, 8.2)0.8 (0.7, 1.0)−2.7 (−4.4, −1.0)−3.9 (−5.9, −2.0)3.0 (2.7, 3.3)0.8 (0.7, 0.9)−0.5 (−1.0, −0.0)−1.6 (−3.1, −0.1)
  P value0.0700.8630.990<0.0010.0060.145
 Education
  High school or less8.6 (8.0, 9.1)1.2 (1.1, 1.4)−3.1 (−3.9, −2.3)−3.7 (−4.5, −2.9)4.4 (4.2, 4.5)1.5 (1.4, 1.5)−1.1 (−1.3, −1.0)−2.7 (−3.0, −2.3)
  More than high school7.1 (6.3, 7.9)1.0 (Reference)−2.4 (−3.5, −1.3)−3.5 (−4.8, −2.2)3.0 (2.8, 3.1)1.0 (Reference)−0.7 (−1.0, −0.5)−2.5 (−3.2, −1.8)
  P value0.0030.3160.768<0.0010.0020.654
IHDs
 Age-group, years
  20–541.6 (1.2, 2.1)1.0 (Reference)−0.3 (−0.9, 0.2)−2.5 (−6.1, 1.0)0.2 (0.2, 0.2)1.0 (Reference)−0.0 (−0.0, 0.0)−0.3 (−1.9, 1.2)
  55–645.0 (4.1, 5.8)3.1 (2.2, 4.3)−1.7 (−2.8, −0.7)−4.1 (−6.0, −2.2)1.1 (1.0, 1.3)5.5 (4.7, 6.5)−0.5 (−0.7, −0.3)−4.9 (−6.4, −3.4)
  65 or older15.2 (14.1, 16.4)9.5 (7.1, 12.7)−6.2 (−7.7, −4.8)−4.7 (−5.5, −3.9)7.6 (7.3, 7.9)36.8 (33.0, 41.2)−2.7 (−3.2, −2.3)−4.1 (−4.6, −3.7)
  P value<0.001<0.0010.429<0.001<0.001<0.001
 Sex
  Men3.0 (2.8, 3.1)1.8 (1.6, 2.0)−3.3 (−4.1, −2.4)−5.4 (−6.4, −4.3)6.4 (5.9, 7.0)2.0 (1.9, 2.1)−1.3 (−1.5, −1.0)−4.5 (−5.1, −3.9)
  Women1.5 (1.4, 1.6)1.0 (Reference)−1.5 (−2.0, −1.1)−4.4 (−5.5, −3.4)3.6 (3.3, 4.0)1.0 (Reference)−0.6 (−0.7, −0.5)−4.4 (−5.0, −3.7)
  P value<0.001<0.0010.176<0.001<0.0010.788
 Race/ethnicity
  Non-Hispanic white4.9 (4.5, 5.2)1.0 (Reference)−2.3 (−2.8, −1.8)−5.0 (−5.9, −4.2)2.1 (2.0, 2.2)1.0 (Reference)−0.9 (−1.0, −0.8)−4.6 (−5.0, −4.1)
  Non-Hispanic black4.6 (3.8, 5.4)0.9 (0.8, 1.1)−2.1 (−3.3, −0.9)−4.8 (−7.0, −2.7)2.5 (2.3, 2.8)1.2 (1.1, 1.3)−0.9 (−1.2, −0.6)−3.8 (−5.0, −2.7)
  Other4.2 (3.2, 5.2)0.9 (0.7, 1.1)−2.1 (−3.4, −0.7)−5.2 (−7.5, −2.8)1.6 (1.4, 1.9)0.8 (0.7, 0.9)−0.6 (−1.0, −0.2)−3.7 (−5.8, −1.5)
  P value0.4150.8960.977<0.0010.2770.429
 Education
  High school or less5.1 (4.6, 5.5)1.3 (1.1, 1.5)−2.3 (−2.9, −1.8)−4.9 (−5.8, −4.0)2.3 (2.3, 2.4)1.5 (1.4, 1.6)−0.9 (−1.1, −0.8)−4.2 (−4.7, −3.7)
  More than high school3.9 (3.4, 4.5)1.0 (Reference)−1.6 (−2.4, −0.8)−4.4 (−6.0, −2.7)1.6 (1.4, 1.7)1.0 (Reference)−0.5 (−0.7, −0.3)−3.5 (−4.4, −2.6)
  P value0.0040.1660.582<0.001<0.0010.162
Stroke
 Age-group, years
  20–540.2 (0.1, 0.4)1.0 (Reference)−0.1 (−0.2, 0.1)−3.6 (−10.8, 3.6)0.1 (0.0, 0.1)1.0 (Reference)−0.0 (−0.0, 0.0)−1.8 (−5.0, 1.4)
  55–640.8 (0.5, 1.0)3.5 (1.7, 7.0)0.0 (−0.2, 0.3)0.8 (−3.8, 5.3)0.3 (0.2, 0.3)4.2 (3.2, 5.6)−0.0 (−0.1, 0.0)−2.2 (−5.3, 0.9)
  65 or older3.9 (3.3, 4.5)17.6 (9.4, 32.6)−1.1 (−1.9, −0.3)−3.2 (−5.0, −1.3)2.5 (2.3, 2.6)40.3 (33.2, 49.0)−0.5 (−0.7, −0.3)−2.4 (−3.1, −1.7)
  P value<0.0010.0330.261<0.001<0.0010.929
 Sex
  Men1.3 (1.0, 1.6)1.2 (0.9, 1.6)−0.6 (−1.1, −0.2)−4.9 (−7.6, −2.2)0.7 (0.7, 0.8)1.1 (1.0, 1.3)−0.2 (−0.3, −0.2)−3.5 (−4.6, −2.4)
  Women1.1 (0.9, 1.2)1.0 (Reference)−0.2 (−0.4, 0.0)−2.0 (−4.1, 0.0)0.6 (0.6, 0.7)1.0 (Reference)−0.2 (−0.2, −0.1)−2.5 (−3.5, −1.6)
  P value0.1510.1040.0820.0160.1210.224
 Race/ethnicity
  Non-Hispanic white1.2 (1.0, 1.4)1.0 (Reference)−0.5 (−0.8, −0.2)−4.1 (−6.2, −2.1)0.6 (0.6, 0.7)1.0 (Reference)−0.2 (−0.2, −0.1)−3.2 (−4.0, −2.4)
  Non-Hispanic black1.0 (0.8, 1.3)0.8 (0.6, 1.1)−0.1 (−0.3, 0.2)−0.4 (−3.5, 2.7)0.9 (0.7, 1.0)1.3 (1.1, 1.6)−0.4 (−0.6, −0.2)−4.5 (−6.6, −2.4)
  Other0.9 (0.6, 1.2)0.7 (0.5, 1.0)−0.0 (−0.3, 0.3)0.1 (−3.7, 3.9)0.6 (0.5, 0.7)1.0 (0.8, 1.2)0.0 (−0.1, 0.2)0.9 (−1.3, 3.2)
  P value0.0810.0440.0360.006<0.001<0.001
 Education
  High school or less1.1 (1.0, 1.3)0.9 (0.6, 1.2)−0.3 (−0.5, −0.1)−2.6 (−4.4, −0.7)0.7 (0.7, 0.8)1.4 (1.2, 1.6)−0.2 (−0.2, −0.1)−2.6 (−3.4, −1.8)
  More than high school1.3 (0.9, 1.7)1.0 (Reference)−0.7 (−1.4, 0.0)−5.5 (−9.3, −1.8)0.5 (0.5, 0.6)1.0 (Reference)−0.1 (−0.2, −0.0)−2.6 (−4.2, −1.0)
  P value0.4790.2540.145<0.0010.3780.967
Heart failure
 Age-group, years
  20–540.1 (0.0, 0.1)1.0 (Reference)0.1 (−0.0, 0.2)20.2 (2.0, 38.4)0.0 (0.0, 0.0)1.0 (Reference)0.0 (0.0, 0.0)11.8 (3.5, 20.0)
  55–640.3 (0.1, 0.4)5.0 (2.0, 12.8)0.1 (−0.1, 0.2)4.2 (−3.6, 12.0)0.1 (0.0, 0.1)19.1 (9.8, 37.2)−0.0 (−0.0, 0.0)−0.4 (−5.5, 4.6)
  65 or older1.8 (1.5, 2.2)36.2 (15.9, 82.7)0.1 (−0.3, 0.5)0.8 (−1.9, 3.4)0.9 (0.8, 1.0)281.0 (160.7, 491.2)0.1 (−0.0, 0.2)1.2 (−0.2, 2.6)
  P value<0.0010.9790.099<0.0010.1940.040
 Sex
  Men0.6 (0.5, 0.8)1.2 (0.9, 1.7)0.1 (−0.1, 0.2)1.2 (−2.1, 4.6)0.3 (0.2, 0.3)1.4 (1.2, 1.7)0.0 (−0.1, 0.1)0.3 (−2.2, 2.7)
  Women0.5 (0.4, 0.6)1.0 (Reference)−0.0 (−0.2, 0.1)−0.5 (−3.9, 2.9)0.2 (0.2, 0.2)1.0 (Reference)0.0 (−0.0, 0.0)0.3 (−1.1, 1.7)
  P value0.2190.4650.471<0.0010.9850.970
 Race/ethnicity
  Non-Hispanic white0.6 (0.5, 0.7)1.0 (Reference)0.0 (−0.1, 0.1)0.4 (−2.3, 3.1)0.2 (0.2, 0.3)1.0 (Reference)−0.0 (−0.0, 0.0)−0.0 (−1.5, 1.5)
  Non-Hispanic black0.4 (0.2, 0.7)0.7 (0.4, 1.3)−0.1 (−0.5, 0.2)−2.4 (−10.1, 5.2)0.3 (0.2, 0.4)1.2 (0.9, 1.5)0.0 (−0.1, 0.1)0.7 (−2.5, 3.8)
  Other0.3 (0.1, 0.4)0.5 (0.3, 0.8)0.1 (−0.1, 0.3)3.4 (−4.7, 11.4)0.1 (0.0, 0.1)0.4 (0.2, 0.6)0.1 (−0.0, 0.2)10.2 (−1.2, 21.6)
  P value0.0020.6370.583<0.0010.2660.206
 Education
  High school or less0.6 (0.5, 0.7)1.7 (1.2, 2.4)−0.0 (−0.2, 0.1)−0.5 (−3.2, 2.2)0.3 (0.2, 0.3)1.3 (1.0, 1.7)0.0 (−0.0, 0.1)1.2 (−0.4, 2.8)
  More than high school0.4 (0.3, 0.5)1.0 (Reference)0.2 (0.0, 0.4)6.2 (0.2, 12.1)0.2 (0.2, 0.2)1.0 (Reference)−0.0 (−0.1, 0.0)−1.2 (−4.4, 2.1)
  P value0.0020.0380.0400.0150.2140.199
Arrhythmia
 Age-group, years
  20–540.1 (0.0, 0.2)1.0 (Reference)0.0 (−0.1, 0.2)5.4 (−12.2, 23.0)0.0 (0.0, 0.0)1.0 (Reference)0.0 (−0.0, 0.0)2.4 (−2.4, 7.2)
  55–640.1 (0.0, 0.2)1.2 (0.4, 3.4)0.1 (−0.0, 0.2)9.4 (−3.3, 22.2)0.0 (0.0, 0.0)2.2 (1.2, 4.1)−0.0 (−0.0, 0.0)−1.2 (−6.4, 4.0)
  65 or older0.6 (0.3, 0.8)6.3 (2.5, 15.7)0.1 (−0.2, 0.3)1.2 (−4.6, 7.1)0.4 (0.3, 0.4)27.4 (18.4, 40.9)0.2 (0.1, 0.2)5.2 (3.2, 7.2)
  P value<0.0010.8890.483<0.001<0.0010.044
 Sex
  Men0.2 (0.1, 0.3)1.6 (0.8, 3.0)0.0 (−0.1, 0.2)1.7 (−5.5, 8.8)0.1 (0.1, 0.1)1.3 (1.0, 1.6)0.0 (0.0, 0.1)3.6 (1.0, 6.2)
  Women0.1 (0.1, 0.2)1.0 (Reference)0.0 (−0.1, 0.1)0.6 (−7.1, 8.3)0.1 (0.1, 0.1)1.0 (Reference)0.0 (0.0, 0.1)4.1 (1.6, 6.5)
  P value0.1710.7780.8450.0420.8200.799
 Race/ethnicity
  Non-Hispanic white0.2 (0.1, 0.2)1.0 (Reference)0.0 (−0.0, 0.1)3.4 (−3.3, 10.0)0.1 (0.1, 0.1)1.0 (Reference)0.0 (0.0, 0.1)4.2 (2.1, 6.3)
  Non-Hispanic black0.1 (0.0, 0.2)0.7 (0.3, 1.5)0.0 (−0.1, 0.2)3.2 (−12.1, 18.6)0.1 (0.1, 0.2)1.2 (0.8, 1.9)0.0 (−0.0, 0.1)1.8 (−3.3, 6.9)
  Other0.4 (0.0, 0.8)2.3 (0.8, 6.6)−0.3 (−0.8, 0.3)−7.4 (−15.9, 1.1)0.1 (0.0, 0.1)0.6 (0.3, 1.0)0.0 (−0.0, 0.0)3.9 (−1.9, 9.7)
  P value0.2910.5550.1390.0150.5220.694
 Education
  High school or less0.2 (0.1, 0.3)1.3 (0.7, 2.7)−0.0 (−0.1, 0.1)0.1 (−5.8, 6.1)0.1 (0.1, 0.1)1.7 (1.3, 2.1)0.0 (0.0, 0.1)4.3 (2.3, 6.4)
  More than high school0.1 (0.1, 0.2)1.0 (Reference)0.1 (−0.0, 0.2)6.8 (−4.1, 17.6)0.1 (0.1, 0.1)1.0 (Reference)0.0 (0.0, 0.0)4.8 (1.3, 8.3)
  P value0.3870.2670.283<0.0010.3660.827
  • *Numbers in parentheses are 95% CIs.

  • P value for difference of an estimate among subgroups.