Table 2

Age-, sex-, and race/ethnicity-adjusted average annual mortality (per 1,000 person-years) among adults ≥20 years of age, NHIS mortality follow-up 1988–2015

All years1988–19941995–19992000–20042005–20092010–201510-Year absolute change10-Year percentage change
Sample CVD death, n
 With diabetes3,8303154217811,0391,274
 Without diabetes14,9931,7112,2003,2633,8613,958
Major CVD
 With diabetes8.2 (7.7, 8.6)*11.2 (9.3, 13.0)11.2 (10.0, 12.4)8.7 (7.9, 9.6)6.7 (6.2, 7.2)5.2 (4.8, 5.6)−3.2 (−3.9, −2.6)−32.7 (−37.2, −27.9)
 Without diabetes3.9 (3.8, 4.0)5.2 (4.9, 5.6)4.8 (4.6, 5.1)4.1 (4.0, 4.3)3.2 (3.1, 3.3)2.8 (2.7, 3.0)−1.2 (−1.3, −1.0)−26.2 (−28.6, −23.7)
 RR (95% CI)2.1 (2.0, 2.2)2.1 (1.8, 2.5)2.3 (2.0, 2.6)2.1 (1.9, 2.3)2.1 (1.9, 2.3)1.8 (1.7, 2.0)P < 0.001P = 0.011
IHD
 With diabetes4.7 (4.4, 5.0)7.3 (6.1, 8.5)6.8 (5.9, 7.8)5.2 (4.5, 5.8)3.5 (3.1, 3.8)2.6 (2.3, 2.9)−2.5 (−2.9, −2.0)−40.3 (−44.7, −35.6)
 Without diabetes2.1 (2.0, 2.1)3.2 (2.9, 3.4)2.8 (2.6, 3.0)2.2 (2.0, 2.3)1.6 (1.5, 1.7)1.3 (1.2, 1.4)−0.9 (−1.0, −0.8)−35.3 (−38.0, −32.4)
 RR (95% CI)2.3 (2.1, 2.5)2.3 (1.9, 2.8)2.5 (2.1, 2.9)2.4 (2.1, 2.8)2.1 (1.9, 2.4)2.0 (1.8, 2.3)P < 0.001P = 0.067
Stroke
 With diabetes1.2 (1.0, 1.3)1.4 (0.8, 2.1)1.6 (1.2, 2.1)1.2 (0.9, 1.5)1.1 (0.9, 1.3)0.8 (0.6, 0.9)−0.4 (−0.6, −0.2)−29.2 (−40.0, −16.5)
 Without diabetes0.7 (0.6, 0.7)0.8 (0.7, 0.9)0.9 (0.8, 0.9)0.8 (0.7, 0.9)0.6 (0.5, 0.6)0.5 (0.4, 0.5)−0.2 (−0.2, −0.1)−25.5 (−30.2, −20.4)
 RR (95% CI)1.7 (1.5, 2.0)1.7 (1.1, 2.7)1.9 (1.4, 2.6)1.5 (1.2, 2.0)1.9 (1.6, 2.4)1.6 (1.3, 2.0)P = 0.078P = 0.564
Heart failure
 With diabetes0.6 (0.5, 0.7)0.5 (0.1, 0.8)0.6 (0.3, 0.9)0.6 (0.4, 0.8)0.6 (0.5, 0.8)0.5 (0.4, 0.6)−0.0 (−0.1, 0.1)−0.5 (−20.7, 24.7)
 Without diabetes0.2 (0.2, 0.3)0.2 (0.2, 0.3)0.2 (0.2, 0.3)0.3 (0.2, 0.3)0.2 (0.2, 0.3)0.2 (0.2, 0.3)0.0 (−0.0, 0.0)2.6 (−9.4, 16.2)
 RR (95% CI)2.4 (2.0, 2.9)2.0 (0.9, 4.2)2.8 (1.6, 4.9)2.4 (1.7, 3.5)2.7 (2.0, 3.7)2.3 (1.7, 2.9)P = 0.893P = 0.809
Arrhythmia
 With diabetes0.2 (0.1, 0.2)0.2 (0.0, 0.3)0.2 (0.0, 0.3)0.2 (0.0, 0.3)0.2 (0.1, 0.2)0.2 (0.2, 0.3)−0.0 (−0.1, 0.1)12.0 (−29.4, 77.5)
 Without diabetes0.1 (0.1, 0.1)0.1 (0.0, 0.1)0.1 (0.1, 0.1)0.1 (0.1, 0.2)0.1 (0.1, 0.1)0.1 (0.1, 0.2)0.0 (0.0, 0.0)40.4 (19.6, 64.7)
 RR (95% CI)1.7 (1.3, 2.4)4.2 (1.2, 14.0)1.8 (0.7, 4.5)1.3 (0.6, 2.8)1.5 (0.9, 2.5)1.6 (1.1, 2.3)P = 0.714P = 0.325
  • *Numbers in parentheses are 95% CIs.

  • †Values are RR (95% CI): hazard ratio (with diabetes vs. without diabetes) and 95% CI.

  • P value for difference of absolute or percentage change between adults with and without diabetes.