Table 1

Baseline anthropometric and biochemical variables

Healthy control subjects (n = 13)Type 1 diabetes (n = 15)MODY2 (n = 15)P
Male/female, n7/67/87/8
Vaginal delivery/cesarean section, n8/510/510/5
Age (years)12.25 ± 2.9212.56 ± 3.5913.06 ± 3.200.654
BMI (kg/m2)17.35 ± 1.8217.89 ± 2.0118.23 ± 1.900.430
Age of onset of diabetes (years)7.35 ± 1.766.91 ± 1.400.455
Duration of diabetes (years)5.68 ± 1.846.10 ± 1.970.551
Breastfeeding time (months)6.58 ± 2.326.41 ± 2.816.54 ± 3.20.911
Birth weight (kg)3.19 ± 0.453.28 ± 0.383.22 ± 0.550.249
Weight (kg)37.35 ± 9.038.32 ± 8.9236.91 ± 7.720.765
HbA1c (%)4.47 ± 0.21a6.26 ± 0.38b6.11 ± 0.33b0.001
HbA1c (mmol/mol)25.3 ± 2.3a44.9 ± 4.2b43.3 ± 3.6b0.001
Triglycerides (mg/dL)52.67 ± 9.4353.50 ± 10.1553.88 ± 9.880.843
Cholesterol (mg/dL)153.88 ± 14.64153.62 ± 16.87154.5 ± 17.90.920
IL-1β (pg/mL)83.21 ± 28.25b119.41 ± 27.12a89.45 ± 25.31b0.004
IL-10 (pg/mL)126.67 ± 9.87b81.03 ± 9.97a121.28 ± 5.46b0.001
IL-6 (pg/mL)85.71 ± 6.28b109.89 ± 6.50a88.98 ± 7.49b0.001
TNF-α (pg/mL)164.31 ± 16.78b373.46 ± 90.65a169.54 ± 18.3b0.001
IL-13 (pg/mL)50.15 ± 8.37b22.83 ± 5.47a45.46 ± 7.31b0.001
LPS (EU/mL)0.49 ± 0.10b1.10 ± 0.40a0.56 ± 0.38b0.001
  • Values are presented as means ± SD unless otherwise specified. P value was based on Kruskal-Wallis test. Mann-Whitney U test was used to compare the clinical characteristics between two groups. Different superscript letters (a,b) next to values in a row indicate that the means of the different groups are significantly different (P < 0.05, Bonferroni post hoc test).