Table 4

Associations between quartiles of TIR and various stages of DR after controlling for confounding factors

Mild NPDRModerate NPDRVTDRAny DR
OR (95% CI)P valueOR (95% CI)P valueOR (95% CI)P valueOR (95% CI)P value
Model 1
 TIR Q40.56 (0.36–0.87)0.0100.48 (0.27–0.83)0.0090.53 (0.30–0.91)0.0230.53 (0.38–0.73)<0.001
 TIR Q30.83 (0.56–1.21)0.3230.49 (0.29–0.81)0.0060.64 (0.39–1.03)0.0640.67 (0.50–0.89)0.006
 TIR Q20.87 (0.61–1.24)0.4450.67 (0.44–1.03)0.0700.75 (0.50–1.14)0.1790.78 (0.60–1.01)0.057
 TIR Q11.00 (Reference)1.00 (Reference)1.00 (Reference)1.00 (Reference)
Model 2
 TIR Q40.57 (0.34–0.94)0.0280.46 (0.24–0.86)0.0150.72 (0.38–1.37)0.3220.57 (0.39–0.83)0.004
 TIR Q30.83 (0.56–1.23)0.3560.48 (0.28–0.81)0.0060.75 (0.45–1.24)0.2570.70 (0.52–0.94)0.019
 TIR Q20.87 (0.61–1.24)0.4490.67 (0.44–1.03)0.0700.77 (0.51–1.16)0.2170.78 (0.60–1.01)0.062
 TIR Q11.00 (Reference)1.00 (Reference)1.00 (Reference)1.00 (Reference)
 SD1.01 (0.82–1.23)0.9550.96 (0.76–1.23)0.7661.26 (1.01–1.58)0.0421.07 (0.92–1.23)0.382
Model 3
 TIR Q40.56 (0.36–0.88)0.0120.49 (0.28–0.86)0.0130.59 (0.34–1.04)0.0670.55 (0.40–0.76)<0.001
 TIR Q30.82 (0.56–1.21)0.3200.48 (0.29–0.80)0.0050.61 (0.38–0.98)0.0430.66 (0.49–0.88)0.004
 TIR Q20.87 (0.60–1.25)0.4420.65 (0.42–1.02)0.0610.68 (0.44–1.03)0.0710.75 (0.57–0.97)0.032
 TIR Q11.00 (Reference)1.00 (Reference)1.00 (Reference)1.00 (Reference)
 CV1.00 (0.98–1.02)0.9021.01 (0.98–1.03)0.6261.02 (1.01–1.04)0.0281.01 (1.00–1.02)0.189
Model 4
 TIR Q40.56 (0.34–0.90)0.0160.40 (0.22–0.73)0.0030.52 (0.28–0.95)0.0340.50 (0.35–0.71)<0.001
 TIR Q30.83 (0.57–1.23)0.3530.46 (0.28–0.78)0.0040.66 (0.41–1.08)0.0970.67 (0.50–0.90)0.007
 TIR Q20.87 (0.61–1.25)0.4550.68 (0.44–1.05)0.0840.77 (0.51–1.16)0.2060.78 (0.60–1.02)0.067
 TIR Q11.00 (Reference)1.00 (Reference)1.00 (Reference)1.00 (Reference)
 MAGE1.00 (0.94–1.07)0.8900.93 (0.86–1.01)0.0961.02 (0.95–1.09)0.6160.99 (0.95–1.04)0.678
  • Model 1 was adjusted for age, sex, BMI, diabetes duration, blood pressure, lipid profile, and HbA1c. Model 2 includes all variables in model 1 plus SD; model 3 includes all variables in model 1 plus CV; model 4 includes all variables in model 1 plus MAGE.