Table 1

Characteristics of study participants by the presence and severity of DR

VariablesAll subjects (n = 3,262)No DR (n = 2,482)Mild NPDR (n = 355)Moderate NPDR (n = 198)VTDR (n = 227)P value for trend
Male sex44.743.644.854.048.00.017
Age (years)60.4 ± 12.060.2 ± 12.459.6 ± 11.061.2 ± 11.062.8 ± 9.80.142
Diabetes duration (years)8.1 ± 6.87.2 ± 6.49.8 ± 6.811.7 ± 7.113.1 ± 7.1<0.001
SBP (mmHg)132.0 ± 17.5130.6 ± 16.6133.7 ± 18.0136.2 ± 18.8140.0 ± 21.7<0.001
DBP (mmHg)79.9 ± 9.679.7 ± 9.580.5 ± 9.280.1 ± 9.481.1 ± 11.00.061
BMI (kg/m2)25.1 ± 3.425.1 ± 3.425.1 ± 3.525.0 ± 3.724.7 ± 3.50.124
Total cholesterol (mmol/L)4.7 ± 1.14.7 ± 1.14.7 ± 1.14.8 ± 1.34.9 ± 1.40.330
TG (mmol/L)1.9 ± 1.81.9 ± 1.81.8 ± 1.51.7 ± 1.41.8 ± 1.9<0.001
HDL-C (mmol/L)1.1 ± 0.31.1 ± 0.31.1 ± 0.31.2 ± 0.31.2 ± 0.30.002
LDL-C (mmol/L)3.2 ± 1.03.1 ± 1.03.1 ± 0.93.2 ± 1.13.2 ± 1.10.980
HbA1c (%)8.9 ± 2.28.8 ± 2.29.0 ± 1.89.4 ± 2.09.4 ± 2.1<0.001
HbA1c (mmol/mol)74.0 ± 24.073.0 ± 24.075.0 ± 19.779.0 ± 21.979.0 ± 23.0
Fasting C-peptide (ng/mL)1.9 ± 1.32.1 ± 1.31.8 ± 1.01.6 ± 1.01.4 ± 0.9<0.001
SD (mmol/L)2.3 ± 0.92.2 ± 0.92.3 ± 0.82.5 ± 0.92.6 ± 0.9<0.001
CV (%)25.6 ± 8.525.3 ± 8.425.5 ± 8.526.6 ± 9.228.0 ± 9.0<0.001
MAGE (mmol/L)5.8 ± 2.55.7 ± 2.56.0 ± 2.56.1 ± 2.46.5 ± 2.6<0.001
TIR (%)66.6 ± 23.568.4 ± 23.663.5 ± 24.257.8 ± 23.959.3 ± 22.6<0.001
Current smoker24.925.129.518.821.60.166
Use antidiabetes agents
 Oral antidiabetes drugs64.065.765.251.855.2<0.001
 Insulin68.464.075.983.191.9<0.001
Use antihypertension agents
 RAAS inhibitors42.841.441.346.757.2<0.001
 Calcium-channel blockers18.918.318.322.323.40.033
 β-Blockers8.79.27.48.65.90.093
 Diuretics3.33.12.91.57.70.171
Use lipid-lowering agents
 Statins24.523.528.928.424.80.128
 Fibrates10.010.58.610.27.20.119
  • Data are mean ± SD or percentage unless otherwise indicated. DBP, diastolic blood pressure; RAAS, renin-angiotensin-aldosterone system; SBP, systolic blood pressure.