Table 3

Associations between TIR and various stages of DR after controlling for confounding factors

Mild NPDRModerate NPDRVTDRAny DR
OR (95% CI)P valueOR (95% CI)P valueOR (95% CI)P valueOR (95% CI)P value
Model 1
 TIR*0.93 (0.87–0.99)0.0180.91 (0.84–0.98)0.0140.91 (0.85–0.98)0.0190.92 (0.88–0.96)<0.001
Model 2
 TIR*0.94 (0.87–1.00)0.0540.91 (0.84–0.99)0.0250.95 (0.87–1.03)0.1860.93 (0.89–0.98)0.006
 SD1.05 (0.87–1.26)0.6111.01 (0.81–1.26)0.9171.26 (1.02–1.55)0.0301.10 (0.96–1.25)0.175
Model 3
 TIR*0.93 (0.87–0.99)0.0200.91 (0.84–0.98)0.0140.91 (0.84–0.98)0.0170.92 (0.88–0.96)<0.001
 CV1.01 (0.99–1.02)0.4621.01 (0.99–1.03)0.5881.02 (1.00–1.04)0.0211.01 (0.99–1.02)0.084
Model 4
 TIR*0.93 (0.87–0.99)0.0350.90 (0.83–0.97)0.0070.92 (0.85–0.99)0.0300.92 (0.88–0.96)<0.001
 MAGE1.02 (0.96–1.08)0.5510.95 (0.88–1.02)0.1851.03 (0.96–1.10)0.4141.00 (0.96–1.05)0.896
  • Model 1 was adjusted for age, sex, BMI, diabetes duration, blood pressure, lipid profile, and HbA1c. Model 2 includes all variables in model 1 plus SD. Model 3 includes all variables in model 1 plus CV. Model 4 includes all variables in model 1 plus MAGE.

  • *ORs and P values were estimated for each 10% increase in TIR (0–100%).