Table 2.1

Staging of type 1 diabetes (4,5)

Stage 1Stage 2Stage 3
Characteristics
  • Autoimmunity

  • Autoimmunity

  • New-onset hyperglycemia

  • Normoglycemia

  • Dysglycemia

  • Symptomatic

  • Presymptomatic

  • Presymptomatic

Diagnostic criteria
  • Multiple autoantibodies

  • Multiple autoantibodies

  • Clinical symptoms

  • No IGT or IFG

  • Dysglycemia: IFG and/or IGT

  • Diabetes by standard criteria

  • FPG 100–125 mg/dL (5.6–6.9 mmol/L)

  • 2-h PG 140–199 mg/dL (7.8–11.0 mmol/L)

  • A1C 5.7–6.4% (39–47 mmol/mol) or ≥10% increase in A1C