Table 4

Proportional subhazards models for the risk of ESRD and for mortality unrelated to ESRD in the four study cohorts (FinnDiane as reference) adjusted for sex, age, baseline eGFR, HbA1c, systolic blood pressure, and smoking status

CovariatesRisk of ESRDMortality unrelated to ESRD*
HR (95% CI)P valueHR (95% CI)P value
Male sex1.37 (1.13, 1.68)0.0021.23 (0.92, 1.63)0.17
Age (10-year increase)0.66 (0.59, 0.74)<0.0012.12 (1.84, 2.44)<0.001
Baseline eGFR (10 mL/min increase)0.73 (0.70, 0.77)<0.0011.08 (1.02, 1.14)0.008
HbA1c (1% increase)1.22 (1.15, 1.29)<0.0011.10 (1.00, 1.21)0.059
Systolic blood pressure (10 mmHg increase)1.14 (1.08, 1.20)<0.0010.99 (0.92, 1.06)0.74
Current smoking1.21 (1.00, 1.47)0.0481.78 (1.36, 2.33)<0.001
Joslin vs. FinnDiane1.44 (1.14, 1.84)0.0030.67 (0.44, 1.02)**0.063**
Steno vs. FinnDiane0.54 (0.42, 0.69)<0.0011.01 (0.73, 1.41)0.94
INSERM vs. FinnDiane0.67 (0.49, 0.92)0.0130.93 (0.61, 1.42)0.74
  • Adjusting for serum cholesterol and ACR in cohorts with available data had a small impact on the differences in ESRD risk or mortality unrelated to ESRD between cohorts and did not influence statistical inferences. Adjusting for age at type 1 diabetes diagnosis or diabetes duration instead of age did not change the statistical inferences on the differences between the cohorts.

  • *In Joslin, 69% of deaths were due to CVD. In FinnDiane, 55% of deaths were due to CVD. In Steno, 67% of deaths were due to CVD. In INSERM, causes of deaths were not available.

  • **In comparison with three other cohorts HR 0.68, P = 0.003.