Table 2

Baseline characteristics of the four study cohorts of patients with type 1 diabetes with persistent macroalbuminuria in CKD stages 1–3 at baseline

CharacteristicJoslin cohort (n = 432)FinnDiane cohort (n = 486)Steno cohort (n = 368)INSERM cohort (n = 232)P value
Men (%)57.260.361.159.90.68
Age (years)37 (32, 43)39 (32, 48)40 (33, 48)41 (32, 50)<0.001
Age at diabetes diagnosis (years)12 (8, 20)10 (7, 15)10 (7, 15)13.5 (8.5, 21)<0.001
Duration of diabetes (years)23 (17, 30)27 (22, 31)27 (22, 32.5)26 (18.5, 33)<0.001
Urinary ACR (mg/g)718 (420, 1,337)321 (122, 786)581 (273, 1,489)<0.001*
Urinary albumin (mg/L)497 (181, 1,110)
eGFR (mL/min/1.73 m2)88 (69, 109)70 (49, 93)75 (58, 96)74 (56, 94)<0.001
Systolic blood pressure (mmHg)131 (120, 142)141 (130, 155)140.5 (127.5, 154.5)140 (130, 155)<0.001
Antihypertensive treatment (%)74.894.881.582.3<0.001
HbA1c
 %9.0 (7.9, 10.2)8.8 (8.0, 10.0)9.2 (8.2, 10.1)8.7 (7.7, 9.8)
 mmol/mol75 (63, 88)73 (64, 86)77 (66, 87)72 (61, 84)0.002
Total cholesterol (mmol/L)5.3 (4.5, 6.1)5.3 (4.7, 6.0)5.5 (4.7, 6.2)0.19*
Smoking status
 Never (%)46.138.447.4
 Former (%)29.929.016.4<0.001*
 Current (%)24.032.644.036.2<0.001
  • Data are median (1st, 3rd) quartile unless otherwise indicated. The statistical tests compare medians across the four cohorts.

  • *Comparison of three cohorts.

  • †Comparison of current smoking prevalence between four cohorts.