Table 2

Summary data of the observational studies submitted to meta-analyses of the pooled prevalences of PCOS, hyperandrogenemia, hirsutism, menstrual dysfunction, and PCOM in women with type 1 diabetes

First authorCountryPatientsEthnicityAgeBMICriteria for PCOSHyperandrogenemiaHirsutismMenstrual dysfunctionPCOM
NIHESHRE/ASRMAE-PCOS
(reference)(n)(years)(kg/m2) (%)(%)(%)(%)(%)(%)(%)
Escobar-Morreale (8)Spain85Caucasian22 ± 523 ± 319NRNR193819NR
Codner (10)Chile42Mixed23 ± 125 ± 112413624291755
Miulescu (11)Romania24NRNRNRNR17NRNR58NR21
Kvasničková (12)Czech Republic21Caucasian33 ± 724 ± 4NR24NR3851924
Bizzarri (13)Italy54Caucasian17 ± 224 ± 477719261124
Samara-Boustani (28)France78Mixed14 ± 20.8 ± 1.0*NRNRNRNR2144NR
Miyoshi (14)Japan21Asian34 ± 622 ± 3NRNRNRNRNR2452
Zachurzok (15)Poland47Caucasian16 ± 10.4 ± 0.3*226194563438
Amato (16)Italy103Caucasian27 ± 622 ± 332373722272829
  • Data are means ± SD or as indicated.

  • NR, not reported.

  • *These values are z-scores.

  • †The prevalence of PCOS was not described, and data presentation did not permit its calculation.

  • ‡This study reported Japanese criteria of PCOS: PCOM in addition to increased luteinizing hormone concentrations and/or hyperandrogenemia.