Table 4

Risk of developing type 2 DM among adolescents and young adults with and without ASD, stratified by sex

MaleFemaleTotal
HR (95% CI)HR (95% CI)HR (95% CI)
ASD, presence vs. absence*2.93 (1.87–4.59)4.44 (2.14–9.21)3.25 (2.23–4.75)
Comorbidities, presence vs. absence
 Hypertension1.56 (0.79–3.09)6.05 (2.41–15.24)2.09 (1.22–3.58)
 Dyslipidemia9.95 (6.29–15.73)16.74 (8.87–31.56)11.11 (7.65–16.13)
 Obesity4.31 (2.51–7.42)1.62 (0.58–4.48)3.46 (2.16–5.53)
Use of atypical antipsychotics
 Nonuser111
 Short-term user2.11 (1.14–3.92)1.07 (0.45–2.57)1.97 (1.20–3.23)
 Long-term user1.95 (1.12–3.41)0.69 (0.25–1.88)1.64 (1.02–2.63)
  • Boldface type indicates statistical significance. *Adjusted for demographic data, use of atypical antipsychotics, and medical comorbidities and ASD as a binary variable.