Table 1

Demographic, clinical, and metabolic characteristics of study population stratified into the following four groups based on changes in weight from prepregnancy to 3 months postpartum (loss or gain) and from 3 to 12 months postpartum (loss or gain): loss/loss, gain/loss, loss/gain, and gain/gain

Loss/loss
(n = 25)Gain/loss
(n = 202)Loss/gain
(n = 33)Gain/gain
(n = 45)P
At OGTT in pregnancy
 Age, years35.0 ± 4.134.7 ± 4.334.7 ± 4.835.5 ± 4.10.6886
 Ethnicity0.0299
  Caucasian72.074.863.653.3
  Asian20.09.49.122.2
  Other8.015.827.324.4
 Family history of diabetes64.057.960.657.80.9391
 Parity0.8862
  Nulliparous60.048.045.548.9
  One36.041.648.540.0
  Greater than one4.010.46.011.1
 Smoking exposure0.9697
  Never68.070.875.875.6
  Remote32.027.724.224.4
  Current0.01.50.00.0
 Pregravid total physical activity7.40 ± 1.457.84 ± 1.277.48 ± 1.067.43 ± 0.930.0651
  Sport index2.34 ± 0.762.36 ± 0.772.18 ± 0.582.12 ± 0.660.1940
  Leisure-time index3.00 ± 0.693.07 ± 0.632.88 ± 0.682.98 ± 0.600.4177
  Work index2.08 ± 0.622.41 ± 0.632.46 ± 0.562.33 ± 0.580.0801
 Prepregnancy BMI, kg/m225.7 (22.5–28.7)23.1 (21.1–26.6)30.2 (26.6–32.1)25.2 (22.7–28.8)<0.0001
 Gestational weight gain to OGTT, kg/week0.2 ± 0.10.4 ± 0.10.2 ± 0.10.4 ± 0.2<0.0001
 Fasting glucose on OGTT, mmol/L4.6 ± 0.74.5 ± 0.54.8 ± 0.54.7 ± 0.70.0692
 1-h glucose on OGTT, mmol/L10.1 ± 2.09.2 ± 1.910.5 ± 1.69.8 ± 2.00.0006
 2-h glucose on OGTT, mmol/L9.3 ± 2.18.2 ± 1.99.1 ± 1.58.0 ± 1.90.0020
 3-h glucose on OGTT, mmol/L7.5 ± 2.06.9 ± 4.27.1 ± 1.96.6 ± 1.70.8252
 AUCgluc on OGTT, mmol/L × h25.4 ± 4.823.1 ± 4.425.5 ± 3.323.4 ± 4.40.0032
 GDM56.024.854.631.10.0002
 Matsuda index of insulin sensitivity4.4 (2.6–6.5)5.0 (3.3–7.2)2.8 (2.1–3.6)4.1 (2.6–5.3)<0.0001
 HOMA-IR1.8 (1.1–2.5)1.5 (1.0–2.2)2.8 (1.7–3.6)1.9 (1.4–3.0)<0.0001
 Adiponectin, µg/mL8.1 ± 2.68.3 ± 3.07.0 ± 2.57.1 ± 1.90.0255
 CRP, mg/L5.98 (2.90–8.62)4.19 (2.27–7.27)6.73 (4.50–11.80)5.68 (2.83–9.85)0.0013
 Total cholesterol, mmol/L6.09 ± 1.316.38 ± 1.246.37 ± 1.286.33 ± 1.150.7549
 LDL cholesterol, mmol/L3.24 ± 1.243.65 ± 1.153.62 ± 1.183.52 ± 0.880.4250
 HDL cholesterol, mmol/L1.63 ± 0.281.70 ± 0.391.53 ± 0.421.69 ± 0.360.1569
 Triglycerides, mmol/L2.47 (1.88–2.91)2.31 (1.87–2.87)2.57 (2.21–3.00)2.06 (1.81–2.89)0.2883
 apoB, g/L1.31 ± 0.321.26 ± 0.311.31 ± 0.321.26 ± 0.260.7416
 apoA1, mmol/L2.03 ± 0.332.09 ± 0.312.03 ± 0.332.11 ± 0.310.4599
At 3 months postpartum
 Months postpartum3.1 (2.8–4.0)3.1 (2.9–3.4)3.1 (3.0–3.4)3.50 (3.0–3.9)0.0267
 BMI, kg/m224.5 (21.9–28.0)25.2 (23.0–29.0)28.0 (25.1–31.0)26.7 (23.3–31.0)0.0168
 Waist circumference, cm87.7 ± 10.988.6 ± 10.592.5 ± 12.291.9 ± 15.30.1332
 Duration of breastfeeding, months3.0 (3.0–4.0)3.0 (3.0–3.0)3.0 (2.5–4.0)3.0 (3.0–4.0)0.1277
 Current smoking8.02.50.00.00.1807
 Total physical activity4.76 ± 0.844.94 ± 1.084.65 ± 1.004.71 ± 0.870.2999
  Sport index1.95 ± 0.452.06 ± 0.711.87 ± 0.521.90 ± 0.570.2702
  Leisure-time index2.83 ± 0.612.89 ± 0.592.81 ± 0.632.82 ± 0.560.8090
 Fasting glucose on OGTT, mmol/L4.5 ± 0.44.6 ± 0.54.5 ± 0.44.6 ± 0.40.5988
 2-h glucose on OGTT, mmol/L6.5 ± 2.16.6 ± 1.96.2 ± 1.76.2 ± 1.60.5451
 Prediabetes/diabetes on OGTT16.022.615.610.30.3102
 Matsuda index of insulin sensitivity10.7 (8.4–14.2)10.8 (7.2–16.5)7.5 (4.8–12.1)9.7 (6.0–14.0)0.0092
 HOMA-IR0.6 (0.5–1.1)0.8 (0.6–1.3)1.2 (0.7–1.9)1.0 (0.6–1.8)0.0278
 Adiponectin, µg/mL9.2 ± 2.88.8 ± 3.28.0 ± 2.17.6 ± 2.60.1068
 CRP, mg/L1.49 (1.24–3.28)2.32 (0.89–4.07)2.16 (1.48–5.28)2.19 (0.96–3.87)0.5375
 Total cholesterol, mmol/L4.55 ± 0.955.18 ± 0.995.06 ± 1.135.60 ± 0.950.0064
 LDL cholesterol, mmol/L2.63 ± 0.803.24 ± 0.923.14 ± 1.063.55 ± 0.800.0110
 HDL cholesterol, mmol/L1.51 ± 0.351.43 ± 0.301.40 ± 0.191.49 ± 0.360.5275
 Triglycerides, mmol/L0.74 (0.65–0.95)0.97 (0.66–1.33)1.22 (0.75–1.36)0.96 (0.65–1.45)0.1706
 apoB, g/L0.76 ± 0.230.93 ± 0.240.91 ± 0.250.99 ± 0.200.0164
 apoA1, mmol/L1.59 ± 0.201.57 ± 0.211.62 ± 0.171.65 ± 0.260.2022
At 12 months postpartum
 Months postpartum11.8 (11.4–12.3)12.1 (11.6–12.7)12.2 (11.6–13.0)12.6 (11.7–13.8)0.0689
 BMI, kg/m223.4 (21.5–26.8)23.8 (21.2–27.8)30.3 (26.6–32.5)27.8 (23.8–32.4)<0.0001
 Waist circumference, cm83.4 ± 9.184.7 ± 9.897.1 ± 13.894.5 ± 16.5<0.0001
 Duration of breastfeeding, months11.0 (5.0–12.0)10.0 (4.0–12.0)10.0 (6.0–12.0)11.5 (5.5–12.0)0.5369
 Current smoking4.04.00.04.60.7844
 Total physical activity8.09 ± 1.508.42 ± 1.437.70 ± 1.437.70 ± 1.090.0052
  Sport index2.29 ± 0.852.38 ± 0.792.05 ± 0.721.98 ± 0.610.0209
  Leisure-time index3.06 ± 0.573.07 ± 0.622.83 ± 0.652.99 ± 0.450.1965
  Work index2.78 ± 0.622.95 ± 0.612.84 ± 0.662.74 ± 0.600.1029
 Fasting glucose on OGTT, mmol/L4.6 ± 0.34.7 ± 0.54.8 ± 0.34.9 ± 0.50.0308
 2-h glucose on OGTT, mmol/L5.9 ± 1.56.2 ± 1.86.5 ± 1.76.6 ± 1.70.2859
 Prediabetes/diabetes on OGTT8.014.424.228.90.0464
 Matsuda index of insulin sensitivity11.0 (9.3–13.8)10.4 (6.7–15.7)5.7 (3.4–7.7)5.9 (4.3–11.5)<0.0001
 HOMA-IR0.9 (0.7–1.3)1.0 (0.6–1.5)2.0 (1.5–2.8)1.6 (0.9–2.2)<0.0001
 Adiponectin, µg/mL11.0 ± 4.29.4 ± 3.67.6 ± 2.97.6 ± 2.5<0.0001
 CRP, mg/L0.89 (0.57–2.05)0.99 (0.47–2.45)2.73 (0.87–4.25)1.96 (0.66–4.41)0.0045
 Total cholesterol, mmol/L4.29 ± 0.544.62 ± 0.804.98 ± 0.925.05 ± 0.97<0.0001
 LDL cholesterol, mmol/L2.35 ± 0.542.72 ± 0.733.07 ± 0.913.06 ± 0.80<0.0001
 HDL cholesterol, mmol/L1.53 ± 0.321.45 ± 0.341.36 ± 0.311.45 ± 0.370.3134
 Triglycerides, mmol/L0.73 (0.64–1.03)0.81 (0.65–1.18)1.05 (0.86–1.53)0.94 (0.79–1.35)0.0010
 apoB, g/L0.69 ± 0.120.80 ± 0.200.91 ± 0.190.90 ± 0.21<0.0001
 apoA1, mmol/L1.53 ± 0.231.49 ± 0.231.50 ± 0.241.54 ± 0.240.4797
  • Data for continuous variables are mean ± SD, except for prepregnancy BMI, Matsuda index, HOMA-IR, CRP, triglycerides, months postpartum, BMI and duration of breastfeeding, which are median (interquartile range). Categorical variables are presented as percentages. P values refer to the overall difference across groups as derived from ANOVA for normally distributed variables and Kruskal–Wallis test for skewed variables and either χ2 test or Fisher exact test for categorical variables.