Table 3

LDRa and ST as predictors of incident retinopathy stratified by sex by prospective GEE univariate and multivariate models

VariablenMale subjects (n = 358)nFemale subjects (n = 378)
UnivariateMultivariate*UnivariateMultivariate
OR (95% CI)POR (95% CI)POR (95% CI)POR (95% CI)P
LDRa
 Quartile 1(<19.8)911.8 (1.1–2.9)0.012.1 (1.1–4.0)0.03932.0 (1.1–3.7)0.021.7 (1.1–2.7)0.03
 Quartile 2 (19.8–65.6)960.9 (0.5–1.5)0.72.7 (1.4–5.5)0.004882.0 (1.1–3.7)0.020.8 (0.5–1.4)0.5
 Quartile 3 (65.6–114.2)871.0 (0.6–1.6)0.92.2 (1.1–4.4)0.03971.6 (0.9–3.0)0.11.0 (0.6–1.6)0.8
 Quartile 4 (>114.2)84ReferenceReference100ReferenceReference
STa (×103)
 Quartile 1 (<1,091)89ReferenceReference95ReferenceReference
 Quartile2 (1,091–1,107)931.8 (1.1–3.1)0.032.4 (1.3–4.2)0.003911.3 (0.8–2.1)0.31.2 (0.7–2.0)0.6
 Quartile 3 (1,108–1,127)941.6 (0.9–2.8)0.12.0 (1.1–3.6)0.02901.5 (0.9–2.5)0.081.4 (0.9–2.2)0.2
 Quartile 4 (>1,127)822.1 (1.2–3.6)0.012.4 (1.1–4.4)0.0071021.3 (0.8–2.2)0.21.1 (0.7–1.8)0.8
Diabetes duration (years)1.2 (1.2–1.3)<0.0011.2 (1.2–1.3)<0.0011.2 (1.2–1.3)<0.0011.2 (1.0–1.3)<0.001
A1C1.2 (1.0–1.3)0.031.2 (1.1–1.4)0.0010.9 (0.8–1.0)0.2
Cholesterol1.4 (1.2–1.7)0.0011.3 (1.1–1.5)0.011.0 (0.8–1.2)0.7
DBP (mmHg)1.05 (1.03–1.07)<0.0011.04 (1.02–1.06)0.0011.01 (1.00–1.03)0.1
BMI (kg/m2)1.09 (1.04–1.13)<0.0011.14 (1.08–1.19)<0.0011.07 (1.03–1.12)0.001
  • In addition to LDR and ST:

  • *Male multivariate model included diabetes duration, A1C, total cholesterol, and DBP as significant covariates.

  • ‡Female multivariate model included diabetes duration and BMI as significant covariates.