Table 1

Type and number of footwear modifications and their mean effect on in-shoe peak pressure for all ROIs and for the ROIs per foot location

nAll locations (n = 35 ROIs)nHallux (n = 13 ROIs)nMetatarsals (n = 17 ROIs)nMidfoot (n = 5 ROIs)
Type of footwear modification
 Local removal of material in insole2611.2% (−4.2 to 30.2)713.0% (−1.3 to 30.2)1510.1% (−4.2 to 26.7)49.8% (5.7–13.2)
 Local softening of material in insole1214.1% (−4.2 to 40.0)01011.8% (−4.2 to 31.2)225.5% (10.9–40.0)
 Addition of metatarsal or hallux pad or bar in insole1216.0% (6.2–28.0)518.6% (12.7–25.9)714.2% (6.2–28.0)0
 Replacement of top cover of insole1414.4% (6.2–25.9)616.7% (10.6–25.9)411.7% (6.2–14.6)413.6% (6.4–10.9)
 Earlier or more significant rocker or roller in shoe outsole or insole1612.3% (−11.2 to 41.6)1111.5% (−11.2 to 41.6)412.9% (3.4–23.6)16.4%
  • Data are n or mean effect (range), with the effect on peak pressure expressed as percentage reduction compared with the previous in-shoe pressure measurement in the session (negative values denote an increase in peak pressure).