Table 1

Baseline characteristics by retinopathy status and LDRa quartiles

Retinopathy*LDRa
NoYes1st quartile2nd quartile3rd quartile4th quartile
Variablen = 449n = 287Pn = 184n = 184n = 184n = 184P
Incident retinopathy0/449 [0]287/287 [100]92/184 [50.0]68/184 [37.0]71/184 [38.6]56/184 [30.4]0.002
Male sex230/449 [1.2]128/287 [44.6]0.0891/184 [49.5]96/184 [52.2]87/184 [47.3]84/184 [45.7]0.6
Age (years)13.9 (13.0–15.2)13.4 (12.7–14.8)0.00613.4 (12.8–14.8)13.7 (12.8–15.2)13.7 (12.8–15.1)13.9 (12.9–15.0)0.4
Diabetes duration (years)4.4 (3.0–7.2)5.3 (3.8–8.6)0.0055.4 (3.6–7.9)5.0 (3.2–8.2)4.6 (3.2–7.4)4.9 (2.9–7.4)0.3
A1C (%)8.3 (1.2)8.8 (1.3)<0.0018.7 (1.4)8.5 (1.2)8.3 (1.3)8.5 (1.3)0.02
SBP SDS0.15 (0.99)0.32 (0.93)0.030.46 (0.90)0.21 (0.91)0.15 (1.04)0.05 (0.99)0.001
DBP SDS0.38 (0.79)0.47 (0.79)0.20.56 (0.81)0.42 (0.79)0.33 (0.80)0.35 (0.75)0.02
BMI SDS0.64 (0.76)0.52 (0.81)0.050.63 (0.83)0.58 (0.70)0.59 (0.81)0.57 (0.81)0.9
Cholesterol (mmol/L)4.2 (3.7–4.7)4.3 (3.7–4.8)0.64.2 (3.7–4.7)4.1 (3.6–4.6)4.3 (3.8–4.7)4.3 (3.8–4.9)0.1
LogAER0.71 (0.33)0.68 (0.27)0.20.71 (0.31)0.72 (0.32)0.71 (0.31)0.65 (0.28)0.2
MDI117/433 [27.0]47/281 [16.7]0.00130/179 [16.8]43/183 [23.5]40/177 [22.6]51/175 [29.1]0.05
  • Normal data are depicted as mean (SD), skewed data as median (IQR), and proportions as n [%].

  • MDI, multiple daily injections.

  • *Comparison between retinopathy groups used the Student t test for normal data, Mann-Whitney U test for skewed data, and χ2 test for proportions.

  • †Comparisons between LDRa groups used ANOVA for normal data and the Tukey test for multiple comparisons. The Kruskal-Wallis test was used for non-normal data comparisons and χ2 test for proportions.