Table 1

Baseline characteristics of women with GDM by randomization condition, KPNC, 2005–2008

Lifestyle interventionUsual careP value*
n96101
Age (years)0.88
 21–243.14.0
 25–2918.820.8
 30+78.175.3
Race/ethnicity0.89
 Non-Hispanic white19.818.8
 Black/African American5.24.0
 Asian or Pacific Islander49.054.5
 Hispanic origin18.818.8
 Other4.22.0
 Missing3.12.0
Education0.09
 High school or less16.76.9
 Some college24.023.8
 College graduate31.330.7
 Postgraduate24.036.6
 Missing4.22.0
Marriage status0.51
 Married86.584.2
 Not married, living with partner7.36.9
 Never married1.05.0
 Divorced/separated1.02.0
 Missing4.22.0
Employment0.14
 Full time40.655.4
 Part time21.917.8
 Not employed33.324.8
 Missing4.22.0
Parity0.98
 039.641.6
 141.740.6
 215.613.9
 3+3.14.0
First-degree family history of diabetes0.67
 Yes47.348.3
 No37.443.8
 Missing15.47.9
Smoking before pregnancy (≥7 cigarettes/week)0.12
 Yes18.89.9
 No7.35.0
 Never smoke69.883.2
 Missing4.22.0
Alcohol consumption before pregnancy (≥1 drink/week)0.51
 Yes24.028.7
 No71.969.3
 Missing4.22.0
Prepregnancy BMI (kg/m2)0.90
 17–2440.643.6
 25–2924.021.8
 30+35.434.7
BMI at baseline (kg/m2)
 20–2415.614.9
 25–2927.132.7
 30+57.352.5
Therapy during pregnancy after GDM diagnosis0.50
 Diet66.760.4
 Glyburide28.135.6
 Insulin5.24.0
Infant birth weight (g)0.51
 <2,5004.64.2
 2,500–4,00079.385.4
 >4,00016.110.5
Mean (SD)Mean (SD)P value
Plasma glucose levels after 50-g glucose challenge (mg/dL)165.5 (21.8)166.1 (21.7)0.85
Diagnostic test (100-g OGTT)
 Fasting plasma glucose92.1 (12.2)91.7 (13.6)0.85
 1-h plasma glucose196.4 (22.6)206.6 (22.7)0.002
 2-h plasma glucose176.6 (18.9)180.4 (26.2)0.27
 3-h plasma glucose125.6 (35.0)129.6 (34.4)0.42
Gestation age at baseline (weeks)31.8 (5.6)31.0 (6.1)0.34
Gestational weight gain at baseline (kg)8.5 (5.4)8.6 (5.4)0.93
Percent of calories from dietary fat at baseline37.3 (6.7)37.6 (7.6)0.81
Moderate or vigorous physical activity at baseline (min/week)333.6 (295)334.1 (326)0.99
Number of visits to health care providers11.1 (5.9)11.0 (6.1)0.86
  • Data are % unless otherwise indicated. OGTT, oral glucose tolerance test.

  • *P values from χ2 tests that exclude the missing category.