Table 1—

Baseline data on 240 pregnant women with type 1 diabetes and normal urinary albumin excretion, microalbuminuria, and nephropathy

Normal urinary albumin excretionMicroalbuminuriaNephropathyP*
n2032611
Age (years)30 ± 429 ± 430 ± 3NS
Duration of diabetes (years)12 ± 819 ± 516 ± 5<0.01
BMI (kg/m2)24 ± 326 ± 525 ± 5<0.05
Urinary albumin excretion (mg/24 h)*8 (1–28)69 (16–278)§1,120 (466–5,528)ND
HbA1c at 2–6 weeks (%)7.5 ± 1.18.1 ± 0.98.8 ± 1.3<0.001
Early systolic BP (mmHg)115 ± 12121 ± 13129 ± 11<0.001
Early diastolic BP (mmHg)69 ± 871 ± 877 ± 8<0.001
No retinopathy135 (67)6 (23)0ND
Simplex55 (27)16 (62)4 (36)ND
Proliferative12 (6)4 (15)7 (64)ND
White classification
 B + C119 (59)5 (19)0ND
 D + R84 (41)21 (81)0ND
 F0011 (100)ND
Nullipara110 (54%)13 (50%)6 (55%)NS
Smokers53 (26%)10 (38%)6 (55%)NS
  • Data are means ± SD, mean (range), or n (%).

  • *

    * n = 176, 23, and 10, respectively;

  • n = 191, 22, and 11, respectively;

  • n = 202. The statistics applied are χ2 trend test when comparing categorical data and linear trend test (regression) for one-way analysis of variance when comparing continuous data. ND, not done; NS, not significant.

  • §

    § Two women diagnosed with microalbuminuria became normoalbuminuric on ACE inhibitor treatment prior to pregnancy.