Table 2—

Pregnancy course and outcome in 240 women with type 1 diabetes and normal urinary albumin excretion, microalbuminuria, and nephropathy

Normal urinary albumin excretionMicroalbuminuriaNephropathyP*
n2032611
HbA1c, weeks 10–34 (%)*6.5 ± 0.76.7 ± 0.67.3 ± 0.6<0.01
Preeclampsia12 (6)11 (42)7 (64)<0.001
Pregnancy-induced hypertension without proteinuria11 (5)1 (4)NS
Proteinuria >3 g/24 h1 (0.5)6 (23)6 (55)<0.001
Preterm delivery before week 3771 (35)16 (62)10 (91)<0.001
Preterm delivery before week 3412 (6)6 (23)5 (45)<0.001
Perinatal mortality3 (1.5)1 (4)0NS
Singleton small-for-gestational-age infants (<10%)4 (2)1 (4)5 (45)<0.001
Birth weight, singletons (g)3,553 ± 6723,124 ± 7672,235 ± 1038<0.001
Major congenital malformations5 (2.5)1 (4)1 (9)NS
Tachypnea continuous positive pressure <1 h, singletons42 (21)4 (15)6 (55)NS
Jaundice requiring treatment, singletons30 (15)2 (8)8 (73)<0.01
  • Data are n (%) or means ± SD.

  • *

    * Mean of HbA1c values in weeks 10, 14, 20, 28, and 34.

  • n = 197, 23, and 11 respectively,

  • n = 195, 23, and 11, respectively. The statistics applied are χ2 trend test when comparing categorical data and linear trend test (regression) for one-way analysis of variance when comparing continuous data. NS, not significant.