Table 1—

An overview of factors affecting the prevalence of depression in patients with diabetes

Patient demographics
 • Sex: generally higher rates for females (4, 7,8,9,10,11,12)
 • Race/ethnicity: higher rates for minorities (8, 13,14,15)
 • Marital status: higher rates for singles (4,16)
 • Age: mixed findings, somewhat higher rates in the middle years and somewhat lower rates in the older years (4,11,17,18,40)
 • Social class (education, income): higher rates at lower levels of social class (8,12,19,20,57)
 • Employment status: higher rates for the unemployed (12)
Disease characteristics
 • Number of comorbidities/complications: mixed findings with a trend toward higher rates with more comorbidities/complications (4,11,12,18, 20,21,22,23,24,25,26,27,28,29,30,31,32, 40,57)
 • Type 1 versus type 2 diabetes: mixed findings, may be related to presence or absence of lifetime history of depression (33,57)
 • Degree of disability: high rates with high disability (24)
 • Pain, discomfort, physical impairment: high rates associated with each (42)
Social support: low depression associated with high social support (17)
General psychological disturbance: depression associated with.
 • Anxiety (57)
 • Health perceptions (34)
 • Negative life events (35)
 • Adverse social circumstances (12)
 • Illness intrusiveness (36)
 • Affect and quality of life (16,17,37,38)
 • Well-being (39)