Table 1—

Characteristics of subjects grouped by sex at baseline and for change between follow-up and baseline

Men
Women
BaselineChangeBaselineChange
Ely study population:
n393543
 Age (years)54.4 (0.40)4.45 (0.02)§53.4 (0.32)4.45 (0.02)§
 BMI (kg/m2)26.0 (0.15)0.83 (0.07)§25.5 (0.20)1.02 (0.08)§
 WHR0.91 (0.003)0.06 (0.003)§0.76 (0.002)0.04 (0.02)§
 Diastolic blood pressure (mmHg)80.9 (0.55)−1.06 (0.49)77.0 (0.45)−1.86 (0.40)§
 Systolic blood pressure (mmHg)131.6 (0.83)−0.74 (0.74)127.5 (0.8)−1.81 (0.65)
 Fasting plasma glucose (mmol/l)5.88 (0.03)−0.72 (0.04)§5.62 (0.02)−0.73 (0.03)§
 Plasma glucose 120 min (mmol/l)6.30 (0.08)−0.02 (0.11)6.31 (0.07)−0.40 (0.07)§
 Fasting insulin (pmol/l)*40.3 (38.1–42.6)5.56 (1.99)39.1 (37.3–41.0)2.56 (1.23)
 Triglycerides (mmol/l)*1.36 (1.30–1.46)−0.09 (0.02)§1.11 (1.07–1.16)−0.25 (0.04)§
 HDL cholesterol (mmol/l)1.29 (0.02)0.03 (0.01)1.60 (0.02)0.02 (0.01)
Individuals not being treated with antihypertensive or lipid-lowering drug:
n194277
 Age (years)53.7 (0.58)4.54 (0.04)§52.7 (0.46)4.53 (0.02)§
 BMI (kg/m2)25.7 (0.21)0.66 (0.11)§24.9 (0.25)1.14 (0.11)§
 WHR0.90 (0.004)0.05 (0.004)§0.76 (0.003)0.04 (0.003)§
 Diastolic blood pressure (mmHg)80.2 (0.69)−0.04 (0.65)75.3 (0.58)−0.93 (0.48)
 Systolic blood pressure (mmHg)129.0 (1.0)2.05 (0.94)123.1 (0.9)1.38 (0.76)
 Fasting plasma glucose (mmol/l)5.80 (0.04)−0.74 (0.07)§5.51 (0.03)−0.73 (0.03)§
 Plasma glucose 120 min (mmol/l)6.13 (0.09)−0.37 (0.15)6.13 (0.07)−0.47 (0.11)§
 Fasting insulin (pmol/l)*38.5 (36.0–41.0)5.40 (2.30)35.9 (33.6–38.3)3.60 (1.70)
 Triglycerides (mmol/l)*1.31 (1.23–1.41)§−0.21 (0.06)§1.08 (1.02–1.14)−0.11 (0.03)
 HDL cholesterol (mmol/l)1.29 (0.03)0.03 (0.02)1.58 (0.02)0.01 (0.02)
  • Data are arithmetic mean (SEM) and

  • *

    * geometric mean (95% CI).

  • P < 0.05,

  • P < 0.01,

  • §

    § P < 0.001 (difference vs. 0);

  • P < 0.01,

  • P < 0.001 (women versus men).