Table 1

Diabetes phenotypes in patients with WSD and type 1 diabetes

nFrequency occurrence (%)Mean (SD)Median (range)Median (lower–upper quartile)P
Age at onset of diabetes (years)
 WSD505.4 (3.8)4.3 (1–17)<0.001*
 Type 1 diabetes24,1647.9 (4.2)7.7 (4–11)
Ketoacidosis pH <7.3 at diabetes manifestation
 WSD4170.049
 Type 1 diabetes13,64420.3
Autoantibodies against β-cell elements
 WSD3110<0.001
 Type 1 diabetes11,14486
HbA1c (%) at diagnosis of diabetes
 WSD2910.6 (2.9)10.0 (5.8–16)0.436*
 Type 1 diabetes23,85011.0 (2.4)10.8 (9.3–12.5)
Remission (years)‡
 WSD332.3 (2.4)2.0 (0–8.5)0.064*
 Type 1 diabetes10,1951.6 (2.1)0.8 (0.4–1.7)
Insulin requirements (IU/kg/day)
 WSD46(0.46–0.9)
 Type 1 diabetes24,0180.81 (0.3)0.79 (0.6–1.0)
HbA1c (%)
 WSD477.9 (1.4)7.8 (5–12)0.064*
 Type 1 diabetes23,8508.0 (1.7)7.6 (6.9–8.7)
Diabetic ketoacidosis after insulin substitution
 WSD4170.427
 Type 1 diabetes23,5044.4
≥1 severe hypoglycemia during childhood/adolescence
 WSD3837<0.001
 Type 1 diabetes22,3247.9
Persistent microalbuminuria
 WSD5000.005
 Type 1 diabetes15,54711.1
Diabetic retinopathy
 WSD500<0.001
 Type 1 diabetes12,0960.6
  • Mean age (years) at the time of data acquisition was 18.1 for WSD and 11.9 for type 1 diabetic patients. The mean time (years) of observation from the time of diagnosis of diabetes was 12.6 for WSD and 4.0 for type 1 diabetes. n, number of patients examined.

  • *One sample t test: P > 0.05 is NS.

  • †Fisher exact: P > 0.05 is NS.

  • ‡ Insulin <0.5 IE/kg/day, HbA1c <7.5%.