Table 1

Baseline characteristics of the study population (n = 35)

CharacteristicsZoledronic acid groupPlacebo groupP
n1817
Age (years)53.8 ± 9.156.0 ± 9.20.40§
Sex (female/male)5/131/160.18
Type 1/type 2 diabetes (n)8/105/120.49
Duration of diabetes (years)17.3 ± 14.016.9 ± 12.40.96§
Neuropathy (n)17150.60
Retinopathy (n)991
Nephropathy (n)1590.08
BMI (kg/m2)29.0 ± 6.428.4 ± 6.10.94§
C-reactive protein (mg/L)12.7 ± 22.13.6 ± 4.10.07§
S-ALP (units/L)*156 ± 90175 ± 1530.87§
S-iCa (mmol/L)1.26 ± 0.041.25 ± 0.050.87§
S-PiP (mmol/L)1.07 ± 0.171.04 ± 0.210.61§
HbA1c (%)8.2 ± 1.47.9 ± 1.60.64§
Charcot foot involvement site
TMT and/or NC joint14150.66
TN and/or CC joint42
Abnormal foot architecture (n)1170.32
Plantar ulceration (n)211
Initial foot temperature difference (°C)3.3 ± 1.63.2 ± 2.10.53§
Distal pedal pulses present17171
  • Data are means ± SD, unless otherwise indicated. S-ALP, serum alkaline phosphatase; S-iCA, serum ionized calcium; S-PiP, serum phosphate; TMT, tarso-metatarsal; NC, naviculocuneiforme; TN, talo-navicular; CC, calcaneo-cuboidal.

  • *One patient in the zoledronic acid group was excluded because of primary biliary cirrhosis (1,250 units/L S-ALP at baseline).

  • †Clinical deformation of the medial longitudinal arch of the foot.

  • ‡A. dorsalis pedis and a. tibialis posterior identified.

  • §Mann–Whitney U test.

  • ‖Fisher exact test.