Table 2—

Baseline characteristics and measures of autonomic function

Survivors (n = 504)Nonsurvivors (n = 101)
Deaths from all causes (n = 101)Cardiovascular deaths (n = 43)
Age (years)63.5 (7.0)68.5 (6.3)68.7 (6.6)
Sex (% male)47.849.553.5
Type 2 diabetes (%)22.843.646.5
Impaired glucose tolerance (%)27.624.823.3
BMI (kg/m2)27.0 (3.9)28.5 (4.4)28.7 (4.7)
Current smokers (%)25.630.730.2
Alcohol consumption (%)64.360.458.1
Prevalence of cardiovascular disease (%)30.657.467.4
Hypertension (%)34.557.465.1
Antihypertensive drug treatment (%)24.242.648.8
Total cholesterol (mmol/l)6.65 ± 1.186.71 ± 1.166.77 ± 1.21
HDL cholesterol (mmol/l)1.29 ± 0.361.23 ± 0.351.19 ± 0.35
HbA1c (%)5.8 ± 1.26.4 ± 1.66.5 ± 1.3
Fasting insulin (pmol/l)*82 (46–151)93 (44–197)100 (45–191)
Autonomic function measures
 Mean NN (ms)953 ± 150902 ± 144903 ± 127
 SDNN (ms)*33.2 (18.8–56.5)27.7 (13.7–55.8)26.0 (9.4–55.4)
 LF power (ms2)*233 (61–945)153 (18–640)134 (15–519)
 HF power (ms2)*183 (37–835)123 (16–747)137 (15–1022)
 LF/(LF + HF)0.58 ± 0.190.53 ± 0.220.49 ± 0.23
 EI difference (ms)*158 (74–336)126 (45–318)113 (46–329)
 BRS (ms/mmHg)*7.8 (3.4–14.4)6.4 (2.2–13.3)6.3 (2.2–14.2)
  • Data are means ± SD, %, and 95% CI unless otherwise indicated.

  • *

    * Given are the median (10th to 90th percentiles);

  • nonsurvivors differed from the survivors, Student’s t test P < 0.05 (only autonomic function measures were tested; Student’s t tests were performed using the ln-transformed values). See Table 1 for definition of autonomic function measures.