Table 3—

Relative risks (95% CI) of autonomic dysfunction* for all-cause and cardiovascular mortality in subjects without (n = 446) and with diabetes (n = 159) and in subjects at low risk (n = 271) and high risk (diabetes and/or hypertension and/or cardiovascular disease) (n = 334)

Parameter*Without diabetes
With diabetes
All causeCardiovascularAll causeCardiovascular
Mean NN1.43 (0.79–2.58)1.21 (0.46–3.18)1.69 (0.90–3.18)1.29 (0.50–3.32)
SDNN0.99 (0.54–1.84)1.33 (0.52–3.39)1.72 (0.89–3.31)1.32 (0.51–3.42)
LF power1.29 (0.70–2.36)1.23 (0.46–3.31)1.89 (0.98–3.65)2.30 (0.82–6.43)
HF power1.69 (0.94–3.02)1.57 (0.61–4.02)1.36 (0.72–2.59)1.03 (0.40–2.67)
LF/(LF + HF)0.67 (0.31–1.44)1.29 (0.46–3.61)1.73 (0.86–3.46)1.90 (0.72–5.06)
EI difference1.21 (0.66–2.21)1.64 (0.64–4.17)2.25 (1.13–4.45)2.04 (0.74–5.65)
BRS1.32 (0.72–2.41)1.28 (0.47–3.53)2.19 (1.11–4.34)2.98 (1.08–8.25)
Low risk
High risk
All causeCardiovascularAll causeCardiovascular
Mean NN1.14 (0.44–3.00)0.96 (0.19–4.77)1.66 (1.03–2.67)1.46 (0.70–3.04)
SDNN0.57 (0.19–1.73)0.83 (0.16–4.22)1.41 (0.88–2.28)1.56 (0.75–3.24)
LF power0.87 (0.31–2.47)0.42 (0.05–3.55)1.49 (0.92–2.42)2.13 (1.01–4.49)
HF power1.08 (0.40–2.90)0.87 (0.17–4.52)1.52 (0.94–2.45)1.37 (0.66–2.85)
LF/(LF + HF)0.20 (0.03–1.51)0.50 (0.06–4.17)1.33 (0.78–2.25)2.09 (0.99–4.42)
EI difference0.80 (0.29–2.24)0.82 (0.16–4.14)1.69 (1.02–2.80)1.75 (0.80–3.86)
BRS1.61 (0.63–4.10)0.49 (0.06–4.14)1.45 (0.88–2.40)2.02 (0.93–4.39)
  • *

    * The lowest 25th percentile values of the autonomic function parameters in the NGT group were considered the cutoff to define autonomic dysfunction: mean NN 878 ms; SDNN 25.7 ms; LF power 125 ms2. HF power 93 ms2; LF/(LF + HF) 0.41; EI difference 107 ms; BRS 6.1 ms/mmHg. See Table 1 for definition of autonomic function measures. Models in subjects without diabetes were adjusted for age, gender, and impaired glucose tolerance; models for subjects with diabetes were adjusted for age, gender, and known diabetes; models for both low-risk and high-risk subjects were adjusted for age and gender.

  • Product-term (glucose tolerance times autonomic function), P < 0.05.