Table 1—

Baseline characteristics of the two study groups

Standard groupExperimental group
n 49 49
Maternal age (years) 31.9 (4.9) 30.9 (7.3)
Parity  2.4  (1.4)  2.2 (1.8)
Prior gestational diabetes26.5%20.4%
Prior newborn >4,000 g40.8%31.2%
Prepregnancy BMI
 Overweight  (from ≥27.0 to <30 kg/m2) 19.6% 17.4%
 Obese  (≥30 kg/m2) 60.8% 50.0%
BMI at entry  (kg/m2) 33.8 (6.5) 31.2 (4.6)*
Gestational age at diagnosis of GDM  (weeks) 0.7 (7.5) 20.6 (7.4)
Gestational age at entry  (weeks) 26.9 (6.2)26.9 (6.2)
Area under OGTT glucose curve  (min × g/dl) 32.6 (4.2) 32.4 (4.7)
OGTT fasting plasma glucose  (mg/dl)110.1 (11.5)109.2 (12.3)
OGTT 1-h plasma glucose  (mg/dl)224.3 (25.3)218.9 (24.1)
OGTT 2-h plasma glucose  (mg/dl)198.7 (31.2)192.2 (37.9)
Highest fasting plasma glucose  (mg/dl)117.4 (11.6)115.5 (6.8)
HbA1c at entry  (%)  6.8 (1.2)  6.4 (0.83)
Initial AC percentile 64.3 (21.6) 66.9 (26.1)
Initial AC ≥70th percentile 19 (39%) 22 (45%)
  • Data are means  (SD) or fraction  (%) of women in each treatment group.

  • *

    * P = 0.03 between groups (Student’s t test); P > 0.05 for all other comparisons;

  • only values before initiation of insulin therapy are included for women who took insulin;

  • standards from Bochner et al.  (14) were used. OGTT, oral glucose tolerance test.