Table 2—

Neonatal outcomes in two study groups and in the experimental subgroups

Standard groupExperimental groupExperimental subgroups
Diet onlyDiet plus insulin
n48 48 18 30 
Gestational weeks at delivery38.2 (0.9)38.3 (1.2)38.1 (1.0)38.3 (0.9)
Birth weight (g)3,271 (458)3,369 (461)3,180 (425)3,482 (451)*
Birth weight ≥4,000 g2.0 (4.2%)3.03 (6.3%)03.0 (10%)
Birth length (cm)50.0 (2.1)50.4 (2.6)50.0 (2.6)50.7 (2.7)
Birthweight ≥90th percentile3.0 (6.3%)4.0 (8.3%)04.0 (13.3%)
Birthweight <10th percentile3.0 (6.3%)0 0 0 
Circumference (cm)
 Head34.2 (1.6)34.6 (1.3)34.1 (1.5)34.9 (1.1)*
 Chest33.1 (1.8)33.6 (1.8)32.7 (1.5)34.2 (1.7)
 Arm10.5 (0.9)10.7 (1.0)10.3 (0.8)11.0 (1.0)*
 Thigh14.9 (1.6)15.1 (1.7)14.6 (1.3)15.3 (1.8)
Skinfold thickness (mm)
 Triceps3.6 (0.9)3.8 (0.9)3.6 (1.0)3.9 (0.8)
 Biceps3.2 (1.1)3.3 (0.8)3.1 (0.6)3.4 (0.9)
 Subscapular3.9 (0.7)4.3 (0.8)§4.1 (0.5)4.5 (1.0)
 Iliac3.2 (0.8)3.5 (0.8)3.4 (0.9)3.5 (0.8)
Capillary glucose§ (mg/dl)
Mean of first 4 h of life65.6 (24.7)59.6 (12.5)59.4 (12.3)59.8 (12.8)
Lowest in first 4 h of life47.2 (11)46.0 (13)47.3 (11.8)47.4 (10.8)
Newborn hematocrit55.2 (6.3)55.6 (7.9)55.8 (4.8)55.6 (7.5)
Any neonatal morbidity12 (25%)12 (25%)4 (22.2%)8 (26.7%)
 Birth trauma1 2 0 2 
 Sepsis, including presumed7 8 3 5 
 Transient tachypnea4 4 1 3 
 Hypoglycemia (intravenous glucose)5 5 1 4 
 Jaundice with phototherapy1 2 1 1 
 Partial exchange transfusion1 0 0 0 
 Poor feeding1 0 0 0 
  • Data are means (SD) or n (%) of women in each group and in the experimental subgroups, divided according to maternal therapy. Perinatal outcome was available in 48 subjects (see text).

  • *

    * P < 0.05 between subgroups;

  • standards in Aguilar et al. (15) were used. P = 0.006 vs. standard therapy group; P > 0.05 for all other comparisons between the experimental and standard groups;

  • P < 0.01 between subgroups;

  • §

    § mean of glucose levels, and the lowest glucose obtained immediately after birth and at 1, 2, and 4 h of life;

  • six infants in the standard group and seven infants in the experimental group had more than one morbidity, so the sum of individual morbidities does not equal “any morbidity”;

  • Erb’s palsy and/or clavicular fracture.