Table 1—

Clinical and metabolic characteristics of the study population, EPIC-Norfolk 1995– 1997 (n = 6,223)

CharacteristicMenWomenP
n27593464
Age (years)59.2 ± 9.258.6 ± 9.30.013
BMI (kg/m2)26.6 ± 3.326.2 ± 4.3<0.001
WHR0.93 ± 0.0560.79 ± 0.061
Positive family history of diabetes321 (12)465 (13)0.038
Physical activity index
 Level 1 (lowest)1,035 (37)1,413 (41)<0.001
 Level 2901 (33)1,311 (38)
 Level 3511 (19)498 (14)
 Level 4312 (11)242 (7)
Smoking history
 Never smoked933 (34)1,947 (56)<0.001
 Ex-smoker1,471 (53)1,137 (33)
 Current smoker355 (13)380 (11)
HbA1c (%)5.35 ± 0.7045.31 ± 0.6320.007
Total energy intake (kcal)2,206 ± 6191,937 ± 548<0.001
Carbohydrate*47 ± 6.748 ± 6.4<0.001
 Sugars (g/day)139 ± 54130 ± 48<0.001
 Starch (g/day)127 ± 44111 ± 39<0.001
 Nonstarch polysaccharides (g/day)18.0 ± 6.419.0 ± 6.8<0.001
Protein*16 ± 2.817 ± 3.1<0.001
Total fat*33 ± 5.832 ± 6.0<0.001
 Saturated fat12.9 ± 3.412.2 ± 3.4<0.001
 Monounsaturated fat*11.9 ± 2.411.1 ± 2.4<0.001
 Polyunsaturated fat*6.0 ± 1.95.9 ± 1.90.016
P:S ratio0.50 ± 0.2280.52 ± 0.2160.016
  • Data are means ± SD or n (%).

  • *

    * Percentage of total energy intake;

  • total fat includes glycerol (not shown) and saturated, monounsaturated, and polyunsaturated fat.