Table 1—

Characteristics of participants by duration of diabetes in years

Time from diagnosis (years)No. of examinations (n)MenAge at examination (years)Age at onset of diabetes <45 yearsMean BMI (kg/m2)Oral therapyInsulin therapy*NephropathyRetinopathy
−25 to −2012030.025.9 ± 9.046.729.4 ± 5.6
−20 to −1516931.429.3 ± 10.554.431.7 ± 6.7
−15 to −1029725.930.7 ± 12.362.032.0 ± 6.9
−10 to −545230.533.2 ± 12.766.634.2 ± 6.9
 −5 to −267032.536.5 ± 13.669.636.1 ± 7.6
 −2 to 031135.737.8 ± 13.671.736.4 ± 7.6
 0 to 267233.640.5 ± 13.868.737.1 ± 8.08.61.32.11.7
 2 to 551631.842.9 ± 13.269.835.8 ± 8.022.77.82.90.8
 5 to 1042232.046.3 ± 12.370.433.9 ± 7.333.015.32.95.6
10 to 1527730.051.3 ± 11.670.432.4 ± 6.831.028.212.224.3
15 to 2019429.454.3 ± 10.176.331.3 ± 6.937.833.929.641.9
20 to 259330.158.6 ± 9.277.430.3 ± 7.026.352.646.251.9
  • Data are n, %, and means ± SD. All percentages are expressed as a percentage of examinations excluding missing data. Data on medication were available for 4,005 examinations (94.7% of all) and on retinopathy for 4,088 examinations (96.7% of all) and on nephropathy for 4,134 examinations (97.8% of all). The mean period of follow-up from first exam to last exam was 18.5 years (SD = 8.3) with a range of 1.7–34.6 years. There was a mean period before diagnosis of 9.6 years (SD = 7.2) and a mean period after diagnosis of 8.9 years (7.8). A total of 32 exams were excluded: 4 reported oral hypoglycemic treatment in the absence of diabetes, 10 reported retinopathy in the absence of diabetes, and 18 reported nephropathy in the absence of diabetes

  • *

    * People taking insulin with oral therapies were included in the insulin group.