Table 2—

Primary outcome measures for the monitoring and standard care conditions

MeasuresMonitoring group (n = 191)Standard care group (n = 101/209)Adjusted differencePES
NWB
 Baseline3.2 (2.8–3.6)3.1 (2.4–3.8)
 Visit 23.1 (2.7–3.5)
 Follow-up*2.6 (2.3–2.9)3.5 (3.0–3.9)0.9 (0.1–1.2)0.0020.29
ENE
 Baseline7.2 (6.7–7.6)7.2 (6.5–7.9)
 Visit 27.5 (7.0–8.0)
 Follow-up*7.6 (7.3–7.9)7.0 (6.5–7.5)0.6 (0.0–1.2)0.0450.18
PWB
 Baseline8.0 (7.6–8.4)7.7 (7.1–8.3)
 Visit 27.9 (7.5–8.3)
 Follow-up*8.5 (8.2–8.8)7.9 (7.4–8.4)0.6 (0.0–1.1)0.0570.20
GWB
 Baseline23.9 (22.8–25.0)23.8 (22.1–25.6)
 Visit 224.2 (23.1–25.4)
 Follow-up*25.1 (24.4–25.8)22.9 (21.8–23.9)2.2 (0.9–3.5)0.0010.29
Mental health
 Baseline
 Follow-up73.4 (71.2–75.6)67.6 (64.0–71.1)5.8 (1.7–10.0)0.006
Quality of care, physician
 Baseline47.7 (45.6–49.7)50.1 (47.3–52.9)
 Follow-up*47.5 (45.8–49.2)45.5 (43.2–47.8)2.0 (−0.8–4.9)0.1650.17
Quality of care, diabetes nurse
 Baseline51.5 (49.2–53.8)50.9 (47.8–54.1)
 Follow-up*49.5 (47.7–51.2)47.1 (44.7–49.4)2.4 (−0.5–5.3)0.1050.22
HbA1c
 Baseline7.8 (7.6–8.0)7.8 (7.7–8.0)
 Visit 27.8 (7.6–8.0)7.7 (7.5–7.9)
 Follow-up*7.7 (7.6–7.9)7.7 (7.6–7.9)0.0 (−0.2–0.2)0.8190.00
  • Data are means (95% CI). Means at follow-up and mean differences at follow-up were adjusted for

  • *

    * corresponding baseline scores or

  • GWB at baseline using ANCOVA.

  • Calculation of GWB: 12 − NWB + ENE + PWB.