Table 3—

Risk of having diagnosed or undiagnosed diabetes (according to 1985 WHO criteria) compared with no diabetes

n (%)Odds ratio (95% CI) of having diagnosed type 2 diabetes*Odds ratio (95% CI) of having undiagnosed type 2 diabetes*NNTS
Socioeconomic
 Education (years)
  0–11711 (24.1)1.01.09.6
  12–141,000 (33.9)0.9 (0.7–1.2)1.1 (0.7–1.5)9.6
  ≥151,232 (41.8)0.7 (0.5–0.9)0.8 (0.5–1.1)12.4
P trend = 0.01P trend = 0.08
 Annual family Income ($)
  <10,000347 (11.8)1.01.011.4
  10,000–25,0001,008 (34.2)0.7 (0.5–1.0)1.1 (0.7–1.8)10.3
  25,000–50,000779 (26.4)0.7 (0.5–0.9)1.1 (0.6–1.9)10.3
  >50,000406 (13.8)0.5 (0.3–0.7)1.0 (0.6–1.9)10.4
P trend = 0.002P trend = 0.99
Health behavior
 Smoking
  Never1,294 (43.9)1.01.011.7
  Ever smoked1,358 (46.0)1.1 (0.9–1.4)1.2 (0.9–1.6)9.2
  Currently smoking293 (9.9)0.7 (0.5–1.1)0.7 (0.4–1.2)14.7
 Alcohol use in past 12 months
  Never1,482 (50.2)1.01.011.3
  Occasional612 (20.7)0.5 (0.4–0.7)1.1 (0.8–1.6)10.2
  1–7 drinks/week632 (21.4)0.4 (0.3–0.5)1.0 (0.7–1.5)10.7
  ≥8 drinks/week213 (7.2)0.2 (0.1–0.4)1.3 (0.8–2.1)8.4
P trend < 0.001P trend = 0.46
Health service use
 Doctor to usually go to
  No167 (5.7)1.01.08.1
  Yes2,775 (94.1)7.3 (3.0–18.0)0.7 (0.5–1.2)10.8
 Health insurance plan in addition to Medicare
  No560 (19.0)1.01.09.6
  Yes2,370 (80.3)1.0 (0.8–1.3)0.9 (0.6–1.3)10.9
 Hospitalization last year
  No2,505 (84.9)1.01.010.9
  Yes439 (14.9)1.5 (1.1–1.9)1.2 (0.8–1.7)9.2
Physical health conditions
 History of cancer
  No2,381 (80.7)1.01.010.9
  Yes562 (19.1)0.9 (0.7–1.2)1.2 (0.8–1.6)9.4
 History of hypertension
  No1,419 (48.1)1.01.013.4
  Yes1,508 (51.1)2.2 (1.8–2.8)1.7 (1.3–2.2)8.7§
 History of cardiovascular disease/procedures
  No2,023 (68.6)1.01.011.4
  Yes927 (31.4)1.5 (1.2–1.8)1.2 (0.9–1.7)9.0
 BMI (kg/m2)
  <24.1734 (24.9)1.01.015.6
  24.1–26.8738 (25.0)1.5 (1.0–2.0)1.0 (0.7–1.6)14.6
  26.9–30.0734 (24.9)2.0 (1.4–2.8)1.7 (1.1–2.6)9.3
  ≥30.1744 (25.2)3.2 (2.3–4.3)2.6 (1.7–3.8)6.9
P trend < 0.001P trend < 0.001
 Waist circumference (cm)
  <91.8736 (24.9)1.01.017.3
  91.8–99.3743 (25.2)1.8 (1.3–2.5)1.3 (0.8–2.0)13.4
  99.4–107.1731 (24.8)2.4 (2.7–3.3)1.9 (1.2–2.9)9.2
  ≥107.2734 (24.9)3.8 (2.8–5.2)2.7 (1.8–4.1)6.8
P trend < 0.001P trend < 0.001
  • *

    * Adjusted for age, sex, and race;

  • P < 0.05;

  • P < 0.001;

  • §

    § P < 0.05;

  • P < 0.05 compared with first and second quartile;

  • quartiles.