Table 1

Demographics of the study and comparator cohorts

CharacteristicsMetformin initiators*
(n = 71,472)SU initiators*
(n = 16,128)
Age (years)
 <6029,277 (41.0)4,102 (25.4)
 60–6921,121 (29.5)4,186 (26.0)
  ≥7021,074 (29.5)7,840 (48.6)
 Median (IQR)62 (54–71)69 (59–78)
Male sex39,886 (55.8)8,878 (55.0)
Ever smoker47,171 (66.0)10,451 (64.8)
BMI (kg/m2)
 <3028,390 (39.7)10,581 (65.6)
 ≥3040,035 (56.0)4,079 (25.3)
 Missing3,047 (4.3)1,468 (9.1)
 Median (IQR)31.1 (27.7–35.3)26.8 (24.1–30.4)
HbA1c level
 <7%9,113 (12.7)1,888 (11.7)
 7–7.9%18,732 (26.3)3,296 (20.4)
 8–8.9%13,248 (18.5)2,682 (16.6)
 ≥9%20,616 (28.8)4,982 (31.0)
 Missing9,763 (13.7)3,280 (20.3)
 Median (IQR)8.1 (7.3–9.6)8.3 (7.4–10.0)
Diabetes duration (years)
 0–<139,904 (54.5)9,073 (56.3)
 1–521,415 (29.9)4,458 (27.6)
 ≥511,153 (15.6)2,597 (16.1)
 Median (IQR)8.1 (1.6–39.1)7.0 (1.5–39.3)
Other diabetes drugs
 Insulin3,865 (5.4)369 (2.3)
 Insulin after index4,169 (5.8)2,160 (13.4)
 TZD589 (0.8)259 (1.6)
 TZD after index11,048 (15.4)2,453 (15.2)
Other drug treatment
 ACE inhibitors31,959 (44.7)6,386 (39.6)
 ARB8,980 (12.5)1,625 (10.1)
 Aspirin28,168 (39.4)6,339 (39.3)
 NSAIDs29,435 (41.2)6,040 (37.4)
 Statins41,586 (58.2)6,896 (42.7)
Congestive heart failure1,765 (2.5)918 (5.7)
Renal impairment3,992 (5.6)1,530 (9.5)
Recurrent urinary tract infection3,940 (5.5)1,039 (6.4)
Myocardial infarction4,924 (6.9)1,534 (9.5)
Duration of follow-up, median (IQR), years2.1 (0.8–4.0)2.0 (0.7–3.9)
  • Values are given as n (%), unless otherwise stated.

  • ARB, angiotensin-receptor blocker; NSAID, nonsteroidal anti-inflammatory drug.

  • *All comparisons have P values <0.01 except sex (P = 0.08), use of aspirin (P = 0.80), and use of a TZD after the index date (P = 0.43). P values were calculated using the Wilcoxon rank sum test or χ2 test.

  • †Measured after the index date (date of metformin or SU initiation).