Table 1

Baseline characteristics of depression case subjects (PHQ-9 ≥10) and nondepressed (PHQ-9 <10) participants with type 2 diabetes in the South London Diabetes Study

Baseline variableTotal (n = 1,769)No depression (n = 1,511)Depression (n = 258)P value
Mean age, years56.1 (11.04)56.6 (11.05)53.0 (10.40)<0.001*
Sex (%)
 Male976 (55.2)855 (56.6)121 (46.9)0.004*
 Female793 (44.8)656 (43.4)137 (53.1)
Ethnicity (%)
 White878 (49.6)750 (49.6)128 (49.6)0.128
 Black710 (40.1)615 (40.7)95 (36.8)
 Asian/other181 (10.2)146 (9.7)35 (13.6)
Mean % HbA1c (mean HbA1c, mmol/mol)7.00 (1.45) (53.1)6.98 (1.46) (52.8)7.13 (1.43) (54.5)0.139
Lipids
 Median TG, mmol/L1.40 (0.90–2.00)1.40 (0.90–1.90)1.50 (1.00–2.20)0.003*
 Mean LDL, mmol/L2.63 (0.91)2.63 (0.90)2.65 (0.98)0.792
 Mean HDL, mmol/L1.22 (0.34)1.22 (0.33)1.20 (0.39)0.589
 Mean total cholesterol, mmol/L4.57 (1.09)4.56 (1.06)4.69 (1.23)0.097
Mean BMI, kg/m232.0 (6.50)31.8 (6.34)33.4 (7.23)0.001*
Macrovascular disease (%)
 None1,584 (90.8)1,365 (91.5)219 (86.2)0.007*
 More than 1161 (9.2)126 (8.5)35 (13.8)
Inflammatory markers
 Median hs-CRP, mg/L2.90 (1.20–6.40)2.70 (1.10–6.20)3.25 (1.40–8.70)0.002*
 Median IL-4, ng/L1.34 (1.11–1.68)1.34 (1.10–1.68)1.35 (1.17–1.68)0.380
 Median IL-6, ng/L1.35 (0.68–3.42)1.32 (0.67–3.41)1.40 (0.75–3.63)0.420
 Median IL-10, ng/L0.45 (0.34–0.63)0.44 (0.34–0.63)0.47 (0.35–0.68)0.144
 Median VEGF, ng/L75.3 (44.8–119.3)74.6 (44.9–118.2)83.3 (44.9–128.7)0.589
 Median TNF-α, ng/L0.89 (0.39–1.86)0.89 (0.39–1.88)0.91 (0.43–1.76)0.771
 Median IL-1β, ng/L1.02 (0.73–1.87)1.01 (0.72–1.85)1.12 (0.76–2.06)0.191
 Median IL-1RA, ng/L437.2 (292.0–694.8)430.0 (282.9–672.4)488.8 (337.3–785.3)0.003*
 Median MCP-1, ng/L103.3 (60.2–152.9)101.7 (59.3–151.1)112.1 (62.8–162.6)0.134
 Median WBC, ×109/L6.51 (5.31–7.97)6.44 (5.25–7.86)6.91 (5.74–8.56)<0.001*
 Median adiponectin, mg/L4.94 (3.28–7.50)5.01 (3.29–7.61)4.65 (3.27–6.65)0.097
  • Data are n (%), mean (SD), or median (IQR) as appropriate. Missing or incomplete values were as follows: HbA1c = 117 cases, lipids = 245 cases, BMI = 3 cases, macrovascular history = 24 cases, hs-CRP = 308 cases, WBC = 183 cases, and adiponectin = 304 cases. Values for IL-4, IL-6, IL-10, VEGF, TNF-α, IL-1β, IL-1RA, and MCP-1 were for a subset of the first 1,227 case subjects for whom we had a stored serum sample.

  • *Significant after Simes' improved Bonferroni correction for multiple testing.