Table 3

IRR for diabetes according to combined categories of CES-D score and use of antidepressant medication in the BWHS, 1999–2011

CES-D score categories
<1616–2223–32≥33
On antidepressantsNoYesNoYesNoYesNoYes
All BMI
 Cases/person-years2,191/252,524115/9,271477/48,77672/3,762284/28,05255/3,313127/11,06751/2,642
 IRR
  Basic multivariate*1.00 (reference)1.30 (1.08–1.57)1.19 (1.08–1.32)2.07 (1.64–2.63)1.25 (1.10–1.42)1.80 (1.38–2.36)1.45 (1.21–1.74)2.01 (1.52–2.66)
  +Lifestyle factors1.00 (reference)1.20 (1.00–1.45)1.14 (1.03–1.26)1.89 (1.50–2.40)1.16 (1.02–1.32)1.61 (1.23–2.11)1.30 (1.09–1.56)1.74 (1.32–2.30)
  +BMI1.00 (reference)1.13 (0.94–1.37)1.08 (0.97–1.19)1.64 (1.30–2.08)1.08 (0.95–1.23)1.33 (1.02–1.75)1.20 (1.00–1.44)1.58 (1.19–2.09)
BMI ≥30 kg/m2
 Cases/person-years1,466/89,24384/3,960323/20,10157/1,831220/12,15840/1,71396/5,06241/1,295
 IRR1.00 (reference)1.14 (0.92–1.43)1.02 (0.91–1.15)1.67 (1.28–2.18)1.12 (0.97–1.30)1.21 (0.88–1.66)1.19 (0.97–1.47)1.67 (1.22–2.29)
  • *Basic covariates: age, questionnaire cycle, healthcare utilization, family history of diabetes, and years of education.

  • †Lifestyle factors: vigorous activity levels, daily hours of television watching, caloric intake, smoking, and alcohol consumption.

  • ‡IRRs adjusted for all basic covariates + lifestyle factors + continuous BMI.