Table 1 —

Changes from baseline in body weight, fat mass, and key substrate/hormone measurements

Placebo treatmentPioglitazone treatmentP value
Body weight
 Before81.4 ± 5.084.8 ± 3.6
 After81.8 ± 5.088.4 ± 3.6*
 Change0.3 ± 0.43.6 ± 1.40.044
BMI (kg/m2)
 Before29.5 ± 1.328.7 ± 1.1
 After29.7 ± 1.330.0 ± 1.1*
 Change0.1 ± 0.21.3 ± 0.50.037
Fat mass (kg)
 Before23.7 ± 2.626.3 ± 2.6
 After24.1 ± 2.729.8 ± 2.9*
 Change0.3 ± 0.43.5 ± 1.30.040
Percentage body fat (%)
 Before28.8 ± 2.230.4 ± 2.0
 After29.1 ± 2.233.1 ± 1.9*
 Change0.3 ± 0.42.7 ± 1.00.043
FFM (kg)
 Before57.7 ± 3.558.4 ± 1.6
 After57.0 ± 3.558.6 ± 1.6
 Change0.0 ± 0.10.2 ± 0.2
FPG (mg/dl)
 Before159 ± 13184 ± 15
 After184 ± 21135 ± 11
 Change25 ± 22−50 ± 120.006
HbAlc (%)
 Before7.9 ± 0.38.9 ± 0.3
 After8.0 ± 0.47.2 ± 0.5
 Change0 ± 0.2−1.7 ± 0.3<0.001
Fasting insulin (μU/ml)
 Before21 ± 417 ± 3
 After13 ± 315 ± 4
 Change−3 ± 2−2 ± 3
Fasting C-peptide (ng/ml)
 Before2.6 ± 0.42.7 ± 0.3
 After2.5 ± 0.52.5 ± 0.8
 Change−0.1 ± 0.6−0.1 ± 0.6
Total cholesterol (mg/dl)
 Before172 ± 6169 ± 5
 After171 ± 8162 ± 6
 Change−1 ± 5−7 ± 6
LDL cholesterol (mg/dl)
 Before111 ± 5107 ± 4
 After111 ± 5105 ± 5
 Change0 ± 4−2 ± 6
HDL cholesterol (mg/dl)
 Before37 ± 235 ± 3
 After36 ± 235 ± 2
 Change−1 ± 11 ± 2
Triglycerides (mg/dl)
 Before123 ± 12138 ± 15
 After123 ± 15105 ± 11*
 Change1 ± 11−33 ± 110.047
FFAs (μEq/l)
 Before659 ± 47647 ± 39
 After672 ± 54478 ± 49*
 Change13 ± 52168 ± 520.020
  • *

    * P < 0.05 vs. before treatment;

  • P < 0.01 vs. before treatment.