Table 3 —

Mean changes in anthropometrical and biochemical measurements (SEM) from baseline over 5 years in the RF and CD groups adjusted for baseline measurements

Time (years)
Intervention period
0.51.02.03.05.0Overall effect of diet (P)*
n (RF/CD)66/7066/7047/5748/5151/52
Weight (kg)
 RF−2.97 ± 0.54−3.32 ± 0.68−3.15 ± 0.78−1.60 ± 0.781.06 ± 0.64<0.0001
 CD−0.08 ± 0.430.59 ± 1.611.06 ± 0.462.13 ± 0.701.26 ± 0.68
BMI (kg/m2)
 RF−0.99 ± 0.18−1.09 ± 0.24−1.01 ± 0.28−0.46 ± 0.280.72 ± 0.28<0.0001
 CD−0.01 ± 0.150.22 ± 0.150.38 ± 0.150.75 ± 0.240.59 ± 0.27
Fasting glucose (mmol/l)
 RF0.04 ± 0.170.08 ± 0.16−0.17 ± 0.26−0.04 ± 0.180.02 ± 0.18NS
 CD0.11 ± 0.160.17 ± 0.130.05 ± 0.240.09 ± 0.220.29 ± 0.30
2-h glucose (mmol/l)
 RF−0.36 ± 0.360.01 ± 0.33−0.76 ± 0.420.20 ± 0.371.02 ± 0.40<0.0001
 CD0.13 ± 0.370.74 ± 0.350.01 ± 0.490.48 ± 0.452.30 ± 0.54
Fasting insulin (mIU/l)
 RF−3.71 ± 1.58−4.87 ± 1.09<0.0001
 CD−4.31 ± 0.86−3.80 ± 0.83
2-h insulin (mIU/l)
 RF−12.01 ± 6.16−14.94 ± 4.200.0103
 CD−6.20 ± 3.64−1.90 ± 3.75
  • Significant difference between RF and CD groups at each time point.

  • *

    * Effect of diet assessed by the interaction term group time (i.e., does the time course of the changes over the 5 years differ with time);

  • P < 0.01;

  • 0.01 = P < 0.05.